How to Start A Bitcoin Mining Business? Developcoins

Get Busy Living or Get Busy Dying (Insane Mining Setup!!!) /r/Bitcoin

Get Busy Living or Get Busy Dying (Insane Mining Setup!!!) /Bitcoin submitted by HiIAMCaptainObvious to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Newcomers FAQ - Please read!

Welcome to the /Bitcoin Sticky FAQ

You've probably been hearing a lot about Bitcoin recently and are wondering what's the big deal? Most of your questions should be answered by the resources below but if you have additional questions feel free to ask them in the comments.
It all started with the release of the release of Satoshi Nakamoto's whitepaper however that will probably go over the head of most readers so we recommend the following videos for a good starting point for understanding how bitcoin works and a little about its long term potential:
Some other great resources include Lopp.net, the Princeton crypto series and James D'Angelo's Bitcoin 101 Blackboard series.
Some excellent writing on Bitcoin's value proposition and future can be found at the Satoshi Nakamoto Institute.
Some Bitcoin statistics can be found here and here. Developer resources can be found here. Peer-reviewed research papers can be found here.
Potential upcoming protocol improvements and scaling resources here and here.
The number of times Bitcoin was declared dead by the media can be found here (LOL!)

Key properties of Bitcoin

Where can I buy bitcoins?

Bitcoin.org and BuyBitcoinWorldwide.com are helpful sites for beginners. You can buy or sell any amount of bitcoin (even just a few dollars worth) and there are several easy methods to purchase bitcoin with cash, credit card or bank transfer. Some of the more popular resources are below, also check out the bitcoinity exchange resources for a larger list of options for purchases.
Here is a listing of local ATMs. If you would like your paycheck automatically converted to bitcoin use Bitwage.
Note: Bitcoins are valued at whatever market price people are willing to pay for them in balancing act of supply vs demand. Unlike traditional markets, bitcoin markets operate 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Preev is a useful site that that shows how much various denominations of bitcoin are worth in different currencies. Alternatively you can just Google "1 bitcoin in (your local currency)".

Securing your bitcoins

With bitcoin you can "Be your own bank" and personally secure your bitcoins OR you can use third party companies aka "Bitcoin banks" which will hold the bitcoins for you.
Note: For increased security, use Two Factor Authentication (2FA) everywhere it is offered, including email!
2FA requires a second confirmation code to access your account making it much harder for thieves to gain access. Google Authenticator and Authy are the two most popular 2FA services, download links are below. Make sure you create backups of your 2FA codes.
Google Auth Authy OTP Auth
Android Android N/A
iOS iOS iOS

Watch out for scams

As mentioned above, Bitcoin is decentralized, which by definition means there is no official website or Twitter handle or spokesperson or CEO. However, all money attracts thieves. This combination unfortunately results in scammers running official sounding names or pretending to be an authority on YouTube or social media. Many scammers throughout the years have claimed to be the inventor of Bitcoin. Websites like bitcoin(dot)com and the btc subreddit are active scams. Almost all altcoins (shitcoins) are marketed heavily with big promises but are really just designed to separate you from your bitcoin. So be careful: any resource, including all linked in this document, may in the future turn evil. Don't trust, verify. Also as they say in our community "Not your keys, not your coins".

Where can I spend bitcoins?

Check out spendabit or bitcoin directory for millions of merchant options. Also you can spend bitcoin anywhere visa is accepted with bitcoin debit cards such as the CashApp card. Some other useful site are listed below.
Store Product
Gyft Gift cards for hundreds of retailers including Amazon, Target, Walmart, Starbucks, Whole Foods, CVS, Lowes, Home Depot, iTunes, Best Buy, Sears, Kohls, eBay, GameStop, etc.
Spendabit, Overstock and The Bitcoin Directory Retail shopping with millions of results
ShakePay Generate one time use Visa cards in seconds
NewEgg and Dell For all your electronics needs
Bitwa.la, Coinbills, Piixpay, Bitbill.eu, Bylls, Coins.ph, Bitrefill, LivingRoomofSatoshi, Coinsfer, and more Bill payment
Menufy, Takeaway and Thuisbezorgd NL Takeout delivered to your door
Expedia, Cheapair, Destinia, Abitsky, SkyTours, the Travel category on Gyft and 9flats For when you need to get away
Cryptostorm, Mullvad, and PIA VPN services
Namecheap, Porkbun Domain name registration
Stampnik Discounted USPS Priority, Express, First-Class mail postage
Coinmap and AirBitz are helpful to find local businesses accepting bitcoins. A good resource for UK residents is at wheretospendbitcoins.co.uk.
There are also lots of charities which accept bitcoin donations.

Merchant Resources

There are several benefits to accepting bitcoin as a payment option if you are a merchant;
If you are interested in accepting bitcoin as a payment method, there are several options available;

Can I mine bitcoin?

Mining bitcoins can be a fun learning experience, but be aware that you will most likely operate at a loss. Newcomers are often advised to stay away from mining unless they are only interested in it as a hobby similar to folding at home. If you want to learn more about mining you can read more here. Still have mining questions? The crew at /BitcoinMining would be happy to help you out.
If you want to contribute to the bitcoin network by hosting the blockchain and propagating transactions you can run a full node using this setup guide. If you would prefer to keep it simple there are several good options. You can view the global node distribution here.

Earning bitcoins

Just like any other form of money, you can also earn bitcoins by being paid to do a job.
Site Description
WorkingForBitcoins, Bitwage, Cryptogrind, Coinality, Bitgigs, /Jobs4Bitcoins, BitforTip, Rein Project Freelancing
Lolli Earn bitcoin when you shop online!
OpenBazaar, Purse.io, Bitify, /Bitmarket, 21 Market Marketplaces
/GirlsGoneBitcoin NSFW Adult services
A-ads, Coinzilla.io Advertising
You can also earn bitcoins by participating as a market maker on JoinMarket by allowing users to perform CoinJoin transactions with your bitcoins for a small fee (requires you to already have some bitcoins.

Bitcoin-Related Projects

The following is a short list of ongoing projects that might be worth taking a look at if you are interested in current development in the bitcoin space.
Project Description
Lightning Network Second layer scaling
Blockstream, Rootstock and Drivechain Sidechains
Hivemind and Augur Prediction markets
Tierion and Factom Records & Titles on the blockchain
BitMarkets, DropZone, Beaver and Open Bazaar Decentralized markets
JoinMarket and Wasabi Wallet CoinJoin implementation
Coinffeine and Bisq Decentralized bitcoin exchanges
Keybase Identity & Reputation management
Abra Global P2P money transmitter network
Bitcore Open source Bitcoin javascript library

Bitcoin Units

One Bitcoin is quite large (hundreds of £/$/€) so people often deal in smaller units. The most common subunits are listed below:
Unit Symbol Value Info
bitcoin BTC 1 bitcoin one bitcoin is equal to 100 million satoshis
millibitcoin mBTC 1,000 per bitcoin used as default unit in recent Electrum wallet releases
bit bit 1,000,000 per bitcoin colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin (μBTC)
satoshi sat 100,000,000 per bitcoin smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor
For example, assuming an arbitrary exchange rate of $10000 for one Bitcoin, a $10 meal would equal:
For more information check out the Bitcoin units wiki.
Still have questions? Feel free to ask in the comments below or stick around for our weekly Mentor Monday thread. If you decide to post a question in /Bitcoin, please use the search bar to see if it has been answered before, and remember to follow the community rules outlined on the sidebar to receive a better response. The mods are busy helping manage our community so please do not message them unless you notice problems with the functionality of the subreddit.
Note: This is a community created FAQ. If you notice anything missing from the FAQ or that requires clarification you can edit it here and it will be included in the next revision pending approval.
Welcome to the Bitcoin community and the new decentralized economy!
submitted by BitcoinFan7 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Paying children for family business

I'm about to start a small business for bitcoin mining. I have children >21 years old who are in another state but also in a lower tax bracket than me. Can I pay them to manage the bitcoin mining business and deduct their salaries and business losses for the first two years (from setup cost) from my small business?
I hear that bitcoin mining profits should be reported on a schedule C. Is that the case?
submitted by PracticalObligation1 to personalfinance [link] [comments]

🌟MS-Services Store🌟 [H]WINDOWS 10 PRO & SERVER 2016| Office 2019: Tech Support offered!. 5🌟~Debit/Credit Transactions!?🌟~(Payments - debit, credit card, Google Pay, Amazon E-Card, BTC, & Venmo..and Paypal)

Welcome to the MS-Services Store

Greetings Redditors! For starters, you can trust us to actually deliver on our promise. We’ve been providing support and solutions to customers for over 5 years now. MS-Services delivers on our core values every day and we keep our promises which is to deliver outstanding IT support and services that propel your business forward.
About Me: I've been in the IT field for a little over 5 years and it's been a passion of mine since I started building my own gaming rig. As a new dad, this extra income helps me support my family and certainly makes a difference for us. Other interest of mine are, wrestling, Anime, gaming(PC) and plants!

Reviews

Check out some of our reviews via comments from previous threads here
|Reviews Thread 1|Reviews Thread 2|Reviews Thread 3|

Forms of Payment

  • Due to PayPal changing their system yet again my preferred method is Debit/credit (Using Squareup - No account needed)
  • Amazon e-Cards When using -: Amazon-E-Gift Card Use this link... Make sure to complete the order and for email, Contact me for my email. I will reply back as soon as I can. This form of payment is rather quick and simple as long as you have an Amazon account
  • Google Pay Please PM me Here letting me know what you want and I'll send you a request- invoice You must have a Google account.
  • Paypal Accepting PayPal again! Please message me asking what you need. I'm not always available so please contact my colleague for taking orders Here he mostly take PayPal orders in case that's your only option. He's rather fast at replying too. He will work with you instead of me.
  • BTC Bitcoin Please message me what you are looking for. I will reply back as soon as I can.
  • Debit and credit cards (Squareup) - Our Payment Services allow you to accept payments from any US-issued and most non-US issued credit, debit, prepaid, or gift cards with the American Express, Discover, MasterCard, and Visa logos. Everything is safe and secured. The website that host this is very popular and well known.
  • Venmo Please PM me Here letting me know what you want as well as your Venmo user-name Very easy to use to send payments safely. Just download the app on your phone Google or iOS and create an account very fast.

Microsoft Services Store

Win_10 Price Download CC /Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon-ecard PayPal Google Pay
Windows 10 Home $40 32/64Bit Downloa Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal
Windows 10 Pro $45 32/64Bit Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal Google Pay
Windows 10 Pro N $35 32/64Bit Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal Google Pay
Windows 10 Edu $35 32/64Bit Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal
Win_8.1 Price Download CC /Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon-ecard PayPal Google Pay
Windows 8.1 Pro $25 32bit/64bit Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal Google Pay
MS_Office Price Download CC /Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon-ecard PayPal Google Pay
Office 2010 Pro Plus $20 Request Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal
Office 2013 Pro Plus $30 Request Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo N/A Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal
Office 2016 Pro Plus $50 Redeem Installer Credit/Debit Card Venmo N/A Amazon E-Gift Card N/A Google Pay
Office Home and Business for Mac 2019 $55 Download Credit/Debit Venmo BitCoin N/A N/A N/A
Office 2019 Pro Plus $60 Redeem Installer Credit/Debit Card Venmo N/A N/A N/A N/A
Win_Serv Price Download CC /Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon-ecard PayPal Google Pay
Windows Server 2016 $35 Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal Google Pay
Windows Server 2016 Ess $30 Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal Google Pay
Windows Server 2016 Datacenter $40 Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal Google Pay
Windows Server 2019 Datacenter $45 Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo N/A N/A N/A N/A
Project_ Price Download CC /Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon-ecard PayPal Google Pay
Project Professional 2016 $25 Redeem Installer Credit/Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal Google Pay
Visio_ Price Download CC /Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon-ecard PayPal Google Pay
Visio Professional 2016 $25 Redeem Installer Credit/Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal Google Pay

WinServer 2016-Activation

  • *Activate successfully on Server 2016 Data Center Evaluation ISO downloaded directly from Microsoft. Use the following to activate (using elevated/admin command prompt):*DISM /online /Set-Edition:ServerDatacenter /ProductKey:AAAA-BBBB-CCCC-DDDD-EEEE /AcceptEula Make sure to use your own product key. Afterwards, your server may need to restart. Select y to restart and after restart check to see if its activated. If it is not, go to Settings>Update & Security>Activation>Change product key and re-enter the product key

WinServer 2016-Activation

  • The only difference between the two is one version was made to have Windows media player pre-installed and the other has it removed. Other than that the operating systems are identical.

Software Downloads

  • We recommend that you download the ISO image of Windows or Office from our download section. We can ensure you keys will work on them.

Office 13 On Windows 10 can be installed on.

  • For those who are curious. Office 2013 can be installed on Windows 10
submitted by drexTech to MicrosoftServices [link] [comments]

Syscoin Platform’s Great Reddit Scaling Bake-off Proposal

Syscoin Platform’s Great Reddit Scaling Bake-off Proposal

https://preview.redd.it/rqt2dldyg8e51.jpg?width=1044&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=777ae9d4fbbb54c3540682b72700fc4ba3de0a44
We are excited to participate and present Syscoin Platform's ideal characteristics and capabilities towards a well-rounded Reddit Community Points solution!
Our scaling solution for Reddit Community Points involves 2-way peg interoperability with Ethereum. This will provide a scalable token layer built specifically for speed and high volumes of simple value transfers at a very low cost, while providing sovereign ownership and onchain finality.
Token transfers scale by taking advantage of a globally sorting mempool that provides for probabilistically secure assumptions of “as good as settled”. The opportunity here for token receivers is to have an app-layer interactivity on the speed/security tradeoff (99.9999% assurance within 10 seconds). We call this Z-DAG, and it achieves high-throughput across a mesh network topology presently composed of about 2,000 geographically dispersed full-nodes. Similar to Bitcoin, however, these nodes are incentivized to run full-nodes for the benefit of network security, through a bonded validator scheme. These nodes do not participate in the consensus of transactions or block validation any differently than other nodes and therefore do not degrade the security model of Bitcoin’s validate first then trust, across every node. Each token transfer settles on-chain. The protocol follows Bitcoin core policies so it has adequate code coverage and protocol hardening to be qualified as production quality software. It shares a significant portion of Bitcoin’s own hashpower through merged-mining.
This platform as a whole can serve token microtransactions, larger settlements, and store-of-value in an ideal fashion, providing probabilistic scalability whilst remaining decentralized according to Bitcoin design. It is accessible to ERC-20 via a permissionless and trust-minimized bridge that works in both directions. The bridge and token platform are currently available on the Syscoin mainnet. This has been gaining recent attention for use by loyalty point programs and stablecoins such as Binance USD.

Solutions

Syscoin Foundation identified a few paths for Reddit to leverage this infrastructure, each with trade-offs. The first provides the most cost-savings and scaling benefits at some sacrifice of token autonomy. The second offers more preservation of autonomy with a more narrow scope of cost savings than the first option, but savings even so. The third introduces more complexity than the previous two yet provides the most overall benefits. We consider the third as most viable as it enables Reddit to benefit even while retaining existing smart contract functionality. We will focus on the third option, and include the first two for good measure.
  1. Distribution, burns and user-to-user transfers of Reddit Points are entirely carried out on the Syscoin network. This full-on approach to utilizing the Syscoin network provides the most scalability and transaction cost benefits of these scenarios. The tradeoff here is distribution and subscription handling likely migrating away from smart contracts into the application layer.
  2. The Reddit Community Points ecosystem can continue to use existing smart contracts as they are used today on the Ethereum mainchain. Users migrate a portion of their tokens to Syscoin, the scaling network, to gain much lower fees, scalability, and a proven base layer, without sacrificing sovereign ownership. They would use Syscoin for user-to-user transfers. Tips redeemable in ten seconds or less, a high-throughput relay network, and onchain settlement at a block target of 60 seconds.
  3. Integration between Matic Network and Syscoin Platform - similar to Syscoin’s current integration with Ethereum - will provide Reddit Community Points with EVM scalability (including the Memberships ERC777 operator) on the Matic side, and performant simple value transfers, robust decentralized security, and sovereign store-of-value on the Syscoin side. It’s “the best of both worlds”. The trade-off is more complex interoperability.

Syscoin + Matic Integration

Matic and Blockchain Foundry Inc, the public company formed by the founders of Syscoin, recently entered a partnership for joint research and business development initiatives. This is ideal for all parties as Matic Network and Syscoin Platform provide complementary utility. Syscoin offers characteristics for sovereign ownership and security based on Bitcoin’s time-tested model, and shares a significant portion of Bitcoin’s own hashpower. Syscoin’s focus is on secure and scalable simple value transfers, trust-minimized interoperability, and opt-in regulatory compliance for tokenized assets rather than scalability for smart contract execution. On the other hand, Matic Network can provide scalable EVM for smart contract execution. Reddit Community Points can benefit from both.
Syscoin + Matic integration is actively being explored by both teams, as it is helpful to Reddit, Ethereum, and the industry as a whole.

Proving Performance & Cost Savings

Our POC focuses on 100,000 on-chain settlements of token transfers on the Syscoin Core blockchain. Transfers and burns perform equally with Syscoin. For POCs related to smart contracts (subscriptions, etc), refer to the Matic Network proposal.
On-chain settlement of 100k transactions was accomplished within roughly twelve minutes, well-exceeding Reddit’s expectation of five days. This was performed using six full-nodes operating on compute-optimized AWS c4.2xlarge instances which were geographically distributed (Virginia, London, Sao Paulo Brazil, Oregon, Singapore, Germany). A higher quantity of settlements could be reached within the same time-frame with more broadcasting nodes involved, or using hosts with more resources for faster execution of the process.
Addresses used: 100,014
The demonstration was executed using this tool. The results can be seen in the following blocks:
612722: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/6d47796d043bb4c508d29123e6ae81b051f5e0aaef849f253c8f3a6942a022ce
612723: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/8e2077f743461b90f80b4bef502f564933a8e04de97972901f3d65cfadcf1faf
612724: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/205436d25b1b499fce44c29567c5c807beaca915b83cc9f3c35b0d76dbb11f6e
612725: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/776d1b1a0f90f655a6bbdf559ff5072459cbdc5682d7615ff4b78c00babdc237
612726: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/de4df0994253742a1ac8ac9eec8d2a8c8b0a6d72c53d6f3caa29bb6c171b0a6b
612727: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/e5e167c52a9decb313fbaadf49a5e34cb490f8084f642a850385476d4ef10d70
612728: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/ab64d989edc71890e7b5b8491c20e9a27520dc45a5f7c776d3dae79057f59fe7
612729: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/5e8b7ecd0e36f99d07e4ea6e135fc952bf7ec30164ab6f4d1e98b0f2d405df6d
612730: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/d395df3d31dde60bbb0bece6bd5b358297da878f0beb96be389e5f0e043580a3
It is important to note that this POC is not focused on Z-DAG. The performance of Z-DAG has been benchmarked within realistic network conditions: Whiteblock’s audit is publicly available. Network latency tests showed an average TPS around 15k with burst capacity up to 61k. Zero-latency control group exhibited ~150k TPS. Mainnet testing of the Z-DAG network is achievable and will require further coordination and additional resources.
Even further optimizations are expected in the upcoming Syscoin Core release which will implement a UTXO model for our token layer bringing further efficiency as well as open the door to additional scaling technology currently under research by our team and academic partners. At present our token layer is account-based, similar to Ethereum. Opt-in compliance structures will also be introduced soon which will offer some positive performance characteristics as well. It makes the most sense to implement these optimizations before performing another benchmark for Z-DAG, especially on the mainnet considering the resources required to stress-test this network.

Cost Savings

Total cost for these 100k transactions: $0.63 USD
See the live fee comparison for savings estimation between transactions on Ethereum and Syscoin. Below is a snapshot at time of writing:
ETH price: $318.55 ETH gas price: 55.00 Gwei ($0.37)
Syscoin price: $0.11
Snapshot of live fee comparison chart
Z-DAG provides a more efficient fee-market. A typical Z-DAG transaction costs 0.0000582 SYS. Tokens can be safely redeemed/re-spent within seconds or allowed to settle on-chain beforehand. The costs should remain about this low for microtransactions.
Syscoin will achieve further reduction of fees and even greater scalability with offchain payment channels for assets, with Z-DAG as a resilience fallback. New payment channel technology is one of the topics under research by the Syscoin development team with our academic partners at TU Delft. In line with the calculation in the Lightning Networks white paper, payment channels using assets with Syscoin Core will bring theoretical capacity for each person on Earth (7.8 billion) to have five on-chain transactions per year, per person, without requiring anyone to enter a fee market (aka “wait for a block”). This exceeds the minimum LN expectation of two transactions per person, per year; one to exist on-chain and one to settle aggregated value.

Tools, Infrastructure & Documentation

Syscoin Bridge

Mainnet Demonstration of Syscoin Bridge with the Basic Attention Token ERC-20
A two-way blockchain interoperability system that uses Simple Payment Verification to enable:
  • Any Standard ERC-20 token to be moved from Ethereum to the Syscoin blockchain as a Syscoin Platform Token (SPT), and back to Ethereum
  • Any SPT to be moved from Syscoin to the Ethereum blockchain as an ERC-20 token, and back to Syscoin

Benefits

  • Permissionless
  • No counterparties involved
  • No trading mechanisms involved
  • No third-party liquidity providers required
  • Cross-chain Fractional Supply - 2-way peg - Token supply maintained globally
  • ERC-20s gain vastly improved transactionality with the Syscoin Token Platform, along with the security of bitcoin-core-compliant PoW.
  • SPTs gain access to all the tooling, applications and capabilities of Ethereum for ERC-20, including smart contracts.
https://preview.redd.it/l8t2m8ldh8e51.png?width=1180&format=png&auto=webp&s=b0a955a0181746dc79aff718bd0bf607d3c3aa23
https://preview.redd.it/26htnxzfh8e51.png?width=1180&format=png&auto=webp&s=d0383d3c2ee836c9f60b57eca35542e9545f741d

Source code

https://github.com/syscoin/?q=sysethereum
Main Subprojects

API

Tools to simplify using Syscoin Bridge as a service with dapps and wallets will be released some time after implementation of Syscoin Core 4.2. These will be based upon the same processes which are automated in the current live Sysethereum Dapp that is functioning with the Syscoin mainnet.

Documentation

Syscoin Bridge & How it Works (description and process flow)
Superblock Validation Battles
HOWTO: Provision the Bridge for your ERC-20
HOWTO: Setup an Agent
Developer & User Diligence

Trade-off

The Syscoin Ethereum Bridge is secured by Agent nodes participating in a decentralized and incentivized model that involves roles of Superblock challengers and submitters. This model is open to participation. The benefits here are trust-minimization, permissionless-ness, and potentially less legal/regulatory red-tape than interop mechanisms that involve liquidity providers and/or trading mechanisms.
The trade-off is that due to the decentralized nature there are cross-chain settlement times of one hour to cross from Ethereum to Syscoin, and three hours to cross from Syscoin to Ethereum. We are exploring ways to reduce this time while maintaining decentralization via zkp. Even so, an “instant bridge” experience could be provided by means of a third-party liquidity mechanism. That option exists but is not required for bridge functionality today. Typically bridges are used with batch value, not with high frequencies of smaller values, and generally it is advantageous to keep some value on both chains for maximum availability of utility. Even so, the cross-chain settlement time is good to mention here.

Cost

Ethereum -> Syscoin: Matic or Ethereum transaction fee for bridge contract interaction, negligible Syscoin transaction fee for minting tokens
Syscoin -> Ethereum: Negligible Syscoin transaction fee for burning tokens, 0.01% transaction fee paid to Bridge Agent in the form of the ERC-20, Matic or Ethereum transaction fee for contract interaction.

Z-DAG

Zero-Confirmation Directed Acyclic Graph is an instant settlement protocol that is used as a complementary system to proof-of-work (PoW) in the confirmation of Syscoin service transactions. In essence, a Z-DAG is simply a directed acyclic graph (DAG) where validating nodes verify the sequential ordering of transactions that are received in their memory pools. Z-DAG is used by the validating nodes across the network to ensure that there is absolute consensus on the ordering of transactions and no balances are overflowed (no double-spends).

Benefits

  • Unique fee-market that is more efficient for microtransaction redemption and settlement
  • Uses decentralized means to enable tokens with value transfer scalability that is comparable or exceeds that of credit card networks
  • Provides high throughput and secure fulfillment even if blocks are full
  • Probabilistic and interactive
  • 99.9999% security assurance within 10 seconds
  • Can serve payment channels as a resilience fallback that is faster and lower-cost than falling-back directly to a blockchain
  • Each Z-DAG transaction also settles onchain through Syscoin Core at 60-second block target using SHA-256 Proof of Work consensus
https://preview.redd.it/pgbx84jih8e51.png?width=1614&format=png&auto=webp&s=5f631d42a33dc698365eb8dd184b6d442def6640

Source code

https://github.com/syscoin/syscoin

API

Syscoin-js provides tooling for all Syscoin Core RPCs including interactivity with Z-DAG.

Documentation

Z-DAG White Paper
Useful read: An in-depth Z-DAG discussion between Syscoin Core developer Jag Sidhu and Brave Software Research Engineer Gonçalo Pestana

Trade-off

Z-DAG enables the ideal speed/security tradeoff to be determined per use-case in the application layer. It minimizes the sacrifice required to accept and redeem fast transfers/payments while providing more-than-ample security for microtransactions. This is supported on the premise that a Reddit user receiving points does need security yet generally doesn’t want nor need to wait for the same level of security as a nation-state settling an international trade debt. In any case, each Z-DAG transaction settles onchain at a block target of 60 seconds.

Syscoin Specs

Syscoin 3.0 White Paper
(4.0 white paper is pending. For improved scalability and less blockchain bloat, some features of v3 no longer exist in current v4: Specifically Marketplace Offers, Aliases, Escrow, Certificates, Pruning, Encrypted Messaging)
  • 16MB block bandwidth per minute assuming segwit witness carrying transactions, and transactions ~200 bytes on average
  • SHA256 merge mined with Bitcoin
  • UTXO asset layer, with base Syscoin layer sharing identical security policies as Bitcoin Core
  • Z-DAG on asset layer, bridge to Ethereum on asset layer
  • On-chain scaling with prospect of enabling enterprise grade reliable trustless payment processing with on/offchain hybrid solution
  • Focus only on Simple Value Transfers. MVP of blockchain consensus footprint is balances and ownership of them. Everything else can reduce data availability in exchange for scale (Ethereum 2.0 model). We leave that to other designs, we focus on transfers.
  • Future integrations of MAST/Taproot to get more complex value transfers without trading off trustlessness or decentralization.
  • Zero-knowledge Proofs are a cryptographic new frontier. We are dabbling here to generalize the concept of bridging and also verify the state of a chain efficiently. We also apply it in our Digital Identity projects at Blockchain Foundry (a publicly traded company which develops Syscoin softwares for clients). We are also looking to integrate privacy preserving payment channels for off-chain payments through zkSNARK hub & spoke design which does not suffer from the HTLC attack vectors evident on LN. Much of the issues plaguing Lightning Network can be resolved using a zkSNARK design whilst also providing the ability to do a multi-asset payment channel system. Currently we found a showstopper attack (American Call Option) on LN if we were to use multiple-assets. This would not exist in a system such as this.

Wallets

Web3 and mobile wallets are under active development by Blockchain Foundry Inc as WebAssembly applications and expected for release not long after mainnet deployment of Syscoin Core 4.2. Both of these will be multi-coin wallets that support Syscoin, SPTs, Ethereum, and ERC-20 tokens. The Web3 wallet will provide functionality similar to Metamask.
Syscoin Platform and tokens are already integrated with Blockbook. Custom hardware wallet support currently exists via ElectrumSys. First-class HW wallet integration through apps such as Ledger Live will exist after 4.2.
Current supported wallets
Syscoin Spark Desktop
Syscoin-Qt

Explorers

Mainnet: https://sys1.bcfn.ca (Blockbook)
Testnet: https://explorer-testnet.blockchainfoundry.co

Thank you for close consideration of our proposal. We look forward to feedback, and to working with the Reddit community to implement an ideal solution using Syscoin Platform!

submitted by sidhujag to ethereum [link] [comments]

The next XVG? Microcap 100x potential actually supported by fundamentals!

What’s up team? I have a hot one for you. XVG returned 12 million percent in 2017 and this one reminds me a lot of it. Here’s why:
Mimblewimble is like Blu-Ray compared to CD-ROM in terms of its ability to compress data on a blockchain. The current BTC chain is 277gb and its capacity is limited because every time you spend a coin, each node needs to validate its history back to when it was mined (this is how double spending is prevented). Mimblewimble is different - all transactions in a block are aggregated and netted out in one giant CoinJoin, and only the current spending needs to be verified. This means that dramatically more transactions can fit into a smaller space, increasing throughput and lowering fees while still retaining the full proof of work game theory of Bitcoin. These blockchains are small enough to run a full node on a cheap smartphone, which enhances the decentralization and censorship resistance of the network.
The biggest benefit, though, is that all transactions are private - the blockchain doesn’t reveal amounts or addresses except to the actual wallet owner. Unlike earlier decoy-based approaches that bloat the chain and can still be data mined (XMR), Mimblewimble leaves no trace in the blockchain, instead storing only the present state of coin ownership.
The first two Mimblewimble coins, Grin and Beam, launched to great fanfare in 2019, quickly reaching over $100m in market cap (since settled down to $22m and $26m respectively). They are good projects but grin has infinite supply and huge never-decreasing emission, and Beam is a corporate moneygrab whose founding investors are counting on you buying for their ROI.
ZEC is valued at $568m today, despite the facts that only 1% of transactions are actually shielded, it has a trusted setup, and generating a confidential transaction takes ~60 seconds on a powerful PC. XMR is a great project but it’s valued at $1.2b (so no 100x) and it uses CryptoNote, which is 2014 tech that relies on a decoy-based approach that could be vulnerable to more powerful computers in the future. Mimblewimble is just a better way to approach privacy because there is simply no data recorded in the blockchain for companies to surveil.
Privacy is not just for darknet markets, porn, money launderers and terrorists. In many countries it’s dangerous to be wealthy, and there are all kinds of problems with having your spending data be out there publicly and permanently for all to see. Namely, companies like Amazon are patenting approaches to identify people with their crypto addresses, “for law enforcement” but also so that, just like credit cards, your spending data can be used to target ads. (A) Coinbase is selling user data to the DEA, IRS, FBI, Secret Service, and who knows who else? (B) What about insurance companies raising your premiums or canceling your policy because they see you buying (legal) cannabis? If your business operates using transparent cryptocurrency, competitors can data mine your customer and supply chain data, and employees can see how much everyone else gets paid. I could go on, but the idea of “I have nothing to hide, so what do I care about privacy?” will increasingly ring hollow as people realize that this money printing will have to be paid by massive tax increases AND that those taxes will be directly debited from their “Central Bank Digital Currency” wallets.
100% privacy for all transactions also eliminates one HUGE problem that people aren’t aware of yet, but they will be: fungibility. Fungibility means that each coin is indistinguishable from any other, just like paper cash. Why is this important? Because of the ever-expanding reach of AML/KYC/KYT (Anti-Money Laundering / Know Your Customer / Know Your Transaction) as regulators cramp down on crypto and banks take over, increasingly coins become “tainted” in various ways. For example, if you withdraw coins to a mixing service like Wasabi or Samourai, you may find your account blocked. (C) The next obvious step is that if you receive coins that these chainalysis services don’t like for whatever reason, you will be completely innocent yet forced to prove that you didn’t know that the coins you bought were up to no good in a past life. 3 days ago, $100k of USDC was frozen. (D) Even smaller coins like LTC now have this problem, because “Chinese Drug Kingpins” used them. (E) I believe that censorable money that can be blocked/frozen isn’t really “your money”.
Epic Cash is a 100% volunteer community project (like XVG and XMR) that had a fair launch in September last year with no ICO and no premine. There are very few projects like this, and it’s a key ingredient in Verge’s success (still at $110m market cap today despite being down 97% since the bubble peak) and why it’s still around. It has a small but super passionate community of “Freemen” who are united by a belief in the sound money economics of Bitcoin Standard emission (21m supply limit and ever-decreasing inflation) and the importance of privacy.
I am super bullish on this coin for the following reasons:
Because it doesn’t have a huge marketing budget in a sea of VC-funded shitcoins, it is as-yet undiscovered, which is why it’s so cheap. There are only 4 Mimblewimble-based currencies on the market: MWC at $162m, BEAM at $26m, GRIN at $22m, and EPIC at $0.4m. This is not financial advice and as always, do your own research, but I’ve been buying this gem for months and will continue to.
This one ticks all the boxes for me, the only real problem is that it’s hard to buy much without causing a huge green candle. Alt season is coming, and coins like this are how your neighbor Chad got his Lambo back in 2017. For 2021, McLaren is a better choice and be sure to pay cash so that it doesn’t get repossessed like Chad!
  1. A https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/d35eax/amazon-bitcoin-patent-data-stream-identify-cryptocurrency-for-law-enforcement-government
  2. B https://decrypt.co/31461/coinbase-wants-to-identify-bitcoin-users-for-dea-irs
  3. C https://www.coindesk.com/binance-blockade-of-wasabi-wallet-could-point-to-a-crypto-crack-up
  4. D https://cointelegraph.com/news/centre-freezes-ethereum-address-holding-100k-usdc
  5. E https://www.coindesk.com/us-treasury-blacklists-bitcoin-litecoin-addresses-of-chinese-drug-kingpins
  6. F https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCWkTxl5Z6DNN0ASMRxSKV5g
  7. G http://epic.tech/whitepaper
  8. H https://medium.com/epic-cash/epic-cash-on-uniswap-22447904d375
  9. I https://epic.tech/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/figure-3.1.jpg
Links:
submitted by pinchegringo to CryptoMoonShots [link] [comments]

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[ANN][ANDROID MINING][AIRDROP] NewEnglandcoin: Scrypt RandomSpike

New England
New England 6 States Songs: https://www.reddit.com/newengland/comments/er8wxd/new_england_6_states_songs/
NewEnglandcoin
Symbol: NENG
NewEnglandcoin is a clone of Bitcoin using scrypt as a proof-of-work algorithm with enhanced features to protect against 51% attack and decentralize on mining to allow diversified mining rigs across CPUs, GPUs, ASICs and Android phones.
Mining Algorithm: Scrypt with RandomSpike. RandomSpike is 3rd generation of Dynamic Difficulty (DynDiff) algorithm on top of scrypt.
1 minute block targets base difficulty reset: every 1440 blocks subsidy halves in 2.1m blocks (~ 2 to 4 years) 84,000,000,000 total maximum NENG 20000 NENG per block Pre-mine: 1% - reserved for dev fund ICO: None RPCPort: 6376 Port: 6377
NewEnglandcoin has dogecoin like supply at 84 billion maximum NENG. This huge supply insures that NENG is suitable for retail transactions and daily use. The inflation schedule of NengEnglandcoin is actually identical to that of Litecoin. Bitcoin and Litecoin are already proven to be great long term store of value. The Litecoin-like NENG inflation schedule will make NewEnglandcoin ideal for long term investment appreciation as the supply is limited and capped at a fixed number
Bitcoin Fork - Suitable for Home Hobbyists
NewEnglandcoin core wallet continues to maintain version tag of "Satoshi v0.8.7.5" because NewEnglandcoin is very much an exact clone of bitcoin plus some mining feature changes with DynDiff algorithm. NewEnglandcoin is very suitable as lite version of bitcoin for educational purpose on desktop mining, full node running and bitcoin programming using bitcoin-json APIs.
The NewEnglandcoin (NENG) mining algorithm original upgrade ideas were mainly designed for decentralization of mining rigs on scrypt, which is same algo as litecoin/dogecoin. The way it is going now is that NENG is very suitable for bitcoin/litecoin/dogecoin hobbyists who can not , will not spend huge money to run noisy ASIC/GPU mining equipments, but still want to mine NENG at home with quiet simple CPU/GPU or with a cheap ASIC like FutureBit Moonlander 2 USB or Apollo pod on solo mining setup to obtain very decent profitable results. NENG allows bitcoin litecoin hobbyists to experience full node running, solo mining, CPU/GPU/ASIC for a fun experience at home at cheap cost without breaking bank on equipment or electricity.
MIT Free Course - 23 lectures about Bitcoin, Blockchain and Finance (Fall,2018)
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLUl4u3cNGP63UUkfL0onkxF6MYgVa04Fn
CPU Minable Coin Because of dynamic difficulty algorithm on top of scrypt, NewEnglandcoin is CPU Minable. Users can easily set up full node for mining at Home PC or Mac using our dedicated cheetah software.
Research on the first forked 50 blocks on v1.2.0 core confirmed that ASIC/GPU miners mined 66% of 50 blocks, CPU miners mined the remaining 34%.
NENG v1.4.0 release enabled CPU mining inside android phones.
Youtube Video Tutorial
How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sdOoPvAjzlE How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nHnRJvJRzZg
How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in macOS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zj7NLMeNSOQ
Decentralization and Community Driven NewEnglandcoin is a decentralized coin just like bitcoin. There is no boss on NewEnglandcoin. Nobody nor the dev owns NENG.
We know a coin is worth nothing if there is no backing from community. Therefore, we as dev do not intend to make decision on this coin solely by ourselves. It is our expectation that NewEnglandcoin community will make majority of decisions on direction of this coin from now on. We as dev merely view our-self as coin creater and technical support of this coin while providing NENG a permanent home at ShorelineCrypto Exchange.
Twitter Airdrop
Follow NENG twitter and receive 100,000 NENG on Twitter Airdrop to up to 1000 winners
Graphic Redesign Bounty
Top one award: 90.9 million NENG Top 10 Winners: 500,000 NENG / person Event Timing: March 25, 2019 - Present Event Address: NewEnglandcoin DISCORD at: https://discord.gg/UPeBwgs
Please complete above Twitter Bounty requirement first. Then follow Below Steps to qualify for the Bounty: (1) Required: submit your own designed NENG logo picture in gif, png jpg or any other common graphic file format into DISCORD "bounty-submission" board (2) Optional: submit a second graphic for logo or any other marketing purposes into "bounty-submission" board. (3) Complete below form.
Please limit your submission to no more than two total. Delete any wrongly submitted or undesired graphics in the board. Contact DISCORD u/honglu69#5911 or u/krypton#6139 if you have any issues.
Twitter Airdrop/Graphic Redesign bounty sign up: https://goo.gl/forms/L0vcwmVi8c76cR7m1
Milestones
Roadmap
NENG v1.4.0 Android Mining, randomSpike Evaluation https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/NENG_2020_Q3_report/NENG_2020_Q3_report.pdf
RandomSpike - NENG core v1.3.0 Hardfork Upgrade Proposal https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/2020Q1_Report/Scrypt_RandomSpike_NENGv1.3.0_Hardfork_Proposal.pdf
NENG Security, Decentralization & Valuation
https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/2019Q2_report/NENG_Security_Decentralization_Value.pdf
Whitepaper v1.0 https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/whitepaper_v1.0/NENG_WhitePaper.pdf
DISCORD https://discord.gg/UPeBwgs
Explorer
http://www.findblocks.com/exploreNENG http://86.100.49.209/exploreNENG http://nengexplorer.mooo.com:3001/
Step by step guide on how to setup an explorer: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/nengexplorer
Github https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin
Wallet
Android with UserLand App (arm64/armhf), Chromebook (x64/arm64/armhf): https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0.5
Linux Wallet (Ubuntu/Linux Mint, Debian/MX Linux, Arch/Manjaro, Fedora, openSUSE): https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0.3
MacOS Wallet (10.11 El Capitan or higher): https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0.2
Android with GNUroot on 32 bits old Phones (alpha release) wallet: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0
Windows wallet: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.3.0.1
addnode ip address for the wallet to sync faster, frequently updated conf file: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/cheetah_cpumineblob/mastenewenglandcoin.conf-example
How to Sync Full Node Desktop Wallet https://www.reddit.com/NewEnglandCoin/comments/er6f0q/how_to_sync_full_node_desktop_wallet/
TWITTER https://twitter.com/newenglandcoin
REDDIT https://www.reddit.com/NewEnglandCoin/
Cheetah CPU Miner Software https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/cheetah_cpuminer
Solo Mining with GPU or ASIC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg52187727#msg52187727
How to Run Two Full Node in Same Desktop PC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53581449#msg53581449
ASIC/GPU Mining Pools Warning to Big ASIC Miners Due to DynDiff Algo on top of Scrypt, solo mining is recommended for ASIC/GPU miners. Further more, even for mining pools, small mining pool will generate better performance than big NENG mining pool because of new algo v1.2.x post hard fork.
The set up configuration of NENG for scrypt pool mining is same as a typical normal scrypt coin. In other word, DynDiff on Scrypt algo is backward compatible with Scrypt algo. Because ASIC/GPU miners rely on CPU miners for smooth blockchain movement, checkout bottom of "Latest News" section for A WARNING to All ASIC miners before you decide to dump big ASIC hash rate into NENG mining.
(1) Original DynDiff Warning: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48324708#msg48324708 (2) New Warning on RandomSpike Spike difficulty (244k) introduced in RandomSpike served as roadblocks to instant mining and provide security against 51% attack risk. However, this spike difficulty like a roadblock that makes big ASIC mining less profitable. In case of spike block to be mined, the spike difficulty immediately serve as base difficulty, which will block GPU/ASIC miners effectively and leave CPU cheetah solo miners dominating mining almost 100% until next base difficulty reset.
FindBlocks http://findblocks.com/
CRpool http://crpool.xyz/
Cminors' Pool http://newenglandcoin.cminors-pool.com/
SPOOL https://spools.online/
Exchange
📷
https://shorelinecrypto.com/
Features: anonymous sign up and trading. No restriction or limit on deposit or withdraw.
The trading pairs available: NewEnglandcoin (NENG) / Dogecoin (DOGE)
Trading commission: A round trip trading will incur 0.10% trading fees in average. Fees are paid only on buyer side. buy fee: 0.2% / sell fee: 0% Deposit fees: free for all coins Withdraw fees: ZERO per withdraw. Mining fees are appointed by each coin blockchain. To cover the blockchain mining fees, there is minimum balance per coin per account: * Dogecoin 2 DOGE * NewEnglandcoin 1 NENG
Latest News Aug 30, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.5 Released for Android/Chromebook Upgrade with armhf, better hardware support https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg55098029#msg55098029
Aug 11, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.4 Released for Android arm64 Upgrade / Chromebook Support https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54977437#msg54977437
Jul 30, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.3 Released for Linux Wallet Upgrade with 8 Distros https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54898540#msg54898540
Jul 21, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.2 Released for MacOS Upgrade with Catalina https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54839522#msg54839522
Jul 19, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.1 Released for MacOS Wallet Upgrade https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54830333#msg54830333
Jul 15, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0 Released for Android Mining, Ubuntu 20.04 support https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54803639#msg54803639
Jul 11, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0 Android Mining, randomSpike Evaluation https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54777222#msg54777222
Jun 27, 2020 - Pre-Announce: NENG v1.4.0 Proposal for Mobile Miner Upgrade, Android Mining Start in July 2020 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54694233#msg54694233
Jun 19, 2020 - Best Practice for Futurebit Moonlander2 USB ASIC on solo mining mode https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54645726#msg54645726
Mar 15, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG v1.3.0.1 Released for better wallet syncing https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54030923#msg54030923
Feb 23, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG Core v1.3.0 Relased, Hardfork on Mar 1 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53900926#msg53900926
Feb 1, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike Proposal Published- NENG 1.3.0 Hardfork https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53735458#msg53735458
Jan 15, 2020 - NewEnglandcoin Dev Team Expanded with New Kickoff https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53617358#msg53617358
Jan 12, 2020 - Explanation of Base Diff Reset and Effect of Supply https://www.reddit.com/NewEnglandCoin/comments/envmo1/explanation_of_base_diff_reset_and_effect_of/
Dec 19, 2019 - Shoreline_tradingbot version 1.0 is released https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5121953.msg53391184#msg53391184
Sept 1, 2019 - NewEnglandcoin (NENG) is Selected as Shoreline Tradingbot First Supported Coin https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg52331201#msg52331201
Aug 15, 2019 - Mining Update on Effect of Base Difficulty Reset, GPU vs ASIC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg52169572#msg52169572
Jul 7, 2019 - CPU Mining on macOS Mojave is supported under latest Cheetah_Cpuminer Release https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg51745839#msg51745839
Jun 1, 2019 - NENG Fiat project is stopped by Square, Inc https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg51312291#msg51312291
Apr 21, 2019 - NENG Fiat Project is Launched by ShorelineCrypto https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50714764#msg50714764
Apr 7, 2019 - Announcement of Fiat Project for all U.S. Residents & Mobile Miner Project Initiation https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50506585#msg50506585
Apr 1, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50417196#msg50417196
Mar 27, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50332097#msg50332097
Mar 17, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50208194#msg50208194
Feb 26, 2019 - Community Project - NewEnglandcoin Graphic Redesign Bounty Initiated https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49931305#msg49931305
Feb 22, 2019 - Dev Policy on Checkpoints on NewEnglandcoin https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49875242#msg49875242
Feb 20, 2019 - NewEnglandCoin v1.2.1 Released to Secure the Hard Kork https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49831059#msg49831059
Feb 11, 2019 - NewEnglandCoin v1.2.0 Released, Anti-51% Attack, Anti-instant Mining after Hard Fork https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49685389#msg49685389
Jan 13, 2019 - Cheetah_CpuMiner added support for CPU Mining on Mac https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49218760#msg49218760
Jan 12, 2019 - NENG Core v1.1.2 Released to support MacOS OSX Wallet https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49202088#msg49202088
Jan 2, 2019 - Cheetah_Cpuminer v1.1.0 is released for both Linux and Windows https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49004345#msg49004345
Dec 31, 2018 - Technical Whitepaper is Released https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48990334#msg48990334
Dec 28, 2018 - Cheetah_Cpuminer v1.0.0 is released for Linux https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48935135#msg48935135
Update on Dec 14, 2018 - NENG Blockchain Stuck Issue https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48668375#msg48668375
Nov 27, 2018 - Exclusive for PC CPU Miners - How to Steal a Block from ASIC Miners https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48258465#msg48258465
Nov 28, 2018 - How to CPU Mine a NENG block with window/linux PC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48298311#msg48298311
Nov 29, 2018 - A Warning to ASIC Miners https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48324708#msg48324708
Disclosure: Dev Team Came from ShorelineCrypto, a US based Informatics Service Business offering Fee for service for Coin Creation, Coin Exchange Listing, Blockchain Consulting, etc.
submitted by honglu69 to NewEnglandCoin [link] [comments]

10/11 Weekly Watchlist. [Again, I post one DAILY on the FREE telegram] List is a bit long but I'm watching a bit

10/11 WEEKLY WATCHLIST
[P.S. Only enter positions you feel the most comfortable with. Your money is your soldier only send him into the battle you think you'll win. Some of these I have taken positions. Some I am looking to take positions. I've posted how many shares I own of what multiple times ]
PLEASE HEDGE your long holds. For essentially pennies you can come out on a bloody day fine!
🔑KEY🔑
[💎-Long time gold][⁉️-Could go both ways][🚀-I think this is gonna shoot up][🔥-This imo is gonna be a fire stock to make money off of just dont get dumped on][⚠️-Already ran a bit be careful][👀-Watching this one closely][⭐- Huge Catalyst or info]
PRIMARY FOCUSES: $SQ $MARA⭐ $RIOT⭐ $SOLO⭐ $DBX⭐ $ADMP $SESN $UEC
🚀💸PENNYS💸🚀
🍊The Big Orange man who lives in the house that's white is pumping money into black business and so is JPM. Tickers to watch for this. $UONE $UONEK $CARV $BYFC🍊
$UEC - $WWR pumped because of uranium. Well this is a..... URANIUM MINE. Big brain! Daily MACD 🐮👀🔥🚀
$DPW - Shorts ate this like it was their last meal. This should have another big run with hoe the sectors are pumping. Support $2/$2.23 Resistance $2.37👀🔥🚀
$ADMP - ⭐FDA Nov 15th.FDA Likey Approved.⭐GOLDEN CROSS coming on the 4hr⭐ 4hr RSI OVERBOUGHT 4hDaily MACD 🐮 Support: $0.51 /$0.59/ $0.60 /$0.74 Gap up to $1.14 after that the world may never know🔥🚀👀⚠️💎
$SESN - ⭐4th Q Bio news ANYDAY now. ⭐Daily MACD 🐻 Support $1.01/$1.25 Resistances $1.38/ $1.44/$1.50🔥🚀👀💎
$PRTY - Halloween is coming up. Daily MACD looking to setup. This is a constant pump and dump stock. Was $5-7 all last year. Daily GRAVESTONE DOJI⚰ Support $1.85/$2.15/ $2.40 Resistance $3.80🔥
$KOS - ⭐Reorganized there debt⭐ 4hr HAMMER DOJI 🔨 Daily/4hr MACD🐮 I honestly can see $1.75-$2 shortly. $1 is a HEAVY support. 👀🔥🚀
$SOLO - Quarterly/Daily/ 4hr MACD 🐮GODLY Support: $2.36-$2.45. Resistances: $2.65/$2.74/$2.87/ $2.95/$3/ $3.14. ⭐US Manufacturing Location PR by EoY.⭐🔥👀💎 $GRIL - This company is undervalued in my eyes. Newish emerging fast "healthy" food. Great concept with little to no competition. Daily RSI still slight oversold. Daily MACD 🐮 ⭐Float is legit NANO sized. I truthfully see $5-7 by next year on this.[LONG]🔥🚀👀💎
💰Honorable Mentions💰
$NOK - Big 5g provider globally. Honestly think this is being slept one and should move up by EoY to $5+.Daily/4hr MACD Daily🐮 👀💎 $NAK - Mine has been waiting for approval for 10+ years. Trump tweeting about it. MASSIVE float [BAD]. If somehow it gets approved this is gonna jet to $4-6💎⁉️
$IDEX - Some PR dropping. I suspect earnings is gonna make this run up heavily [Nov 6th]
$RIOT/$MARA -⭐ ONLY if Bitcoin continues to run up.⭐
💰Non-Pennys💰 ⭐SPAC companies are blank check companies looking to merge. If the merge FAILS you are reimbursed $10.⭐
$JETS - Airline ETF. With the fed and uncle JPOW 3rd of his name pumping airlines this could zoom zoom zoom to the moon moon moon
$SPWR - Solar power is BOOMING. This has been uptrending for awhile. Support $13.28/$15.43 Resistances are unknown. Daily RSI OVERBOUGHT. 👀🔥🚀🚀⚠️⚠️
$PLUG - WAY 2 HIGH! OVERBOUGHT TO THE EXTREME! Alt energy is a thing of the future! Dont expect the lowest level support to he broken. Support $15.70/$17 [LONG]⚠️⚠️🔥🚀👀💎
$ASO - New IPO. They sell camping goods such as GUNS & AMMO. $CWH is +250% since COVID drop while selling similar goods. New so impossible to map out levels. 🔥🚀👀💎
$KIRK - Cup and Handle! Support $7.41/ $8.77/$10.16⁉️ Resistances $11.87. 4hDaily MACD🐮 ⭐4hr GOLDEN CROSS 9/18⭐Suspect earnings get SMASHED [LONG]👀🔥🚀⚠️
$MCAC - [SPAC] ⭐PLAYBOY⭐ is going public through them. Sheerly off the name.🔥💎🚀👀 $CRSR - ⭐Slept on IPO that just came out. Makes competitive gaming equipment. Super sponsors in ESPORTS which are growing vastely. IMO another great long. ⭐I see a bullflag formed on multiple time frames.[LONG]⚠️🔥👀💎
$CLSK - Just like PLUG the uptrend is insane. ⭐ $9 Offering⭐ 4hr MACD 🐮Almost NO DEBT! Support is around $10. This should gap back to $13+ when the offering closes. ☠SABBY IS IN THIS STOCK☠👀🔥🚀⚠️
$PLAY - I'm bullish as a bull can be for next Q earnings! Support $13.86/ $15.05 ⭐4hr GOLDEN CROSS coming early next week ⭐Daily MACD BREACHING 🐮 4hr MACD 🐮/🐻HUGE Gap up potential to $19/$20. I'd put moneyon earnings being beaten December🔥
$SPAQ - [SPAC] ⭐MERGER VOTE END OF OCT⭐4hr GOLDEN CROSS⭐I see $25 EoY. 4h Daily MACD turning 🐮 Support $11.90/ $12.99 Resistances $15/ $15.55/ $16.05. Fisker is a PR machine.🔥🚀👀💎
$JMIA - Cup and Handle! Huge E-commerce in Europe/Africa. 4hr OVERBOUGHT 4hDaily/Wkly MACD 🐮⭐1+2hr GOLDEN CROSS⭐ Support $9.79/ $10.16 Resistance $10.60-$10.70 [LONG]⚠️🔥🚀💎
$DBX - 5years of constant revenue growth. Huge inverse H&S. Wedge broke out bullish. Daily/4hWkly MACD🐮 Support $18.74/$19.10/ $19.58. Resistance $20.77/$21.29 /$22.76 Gap up to $23.48👀🔥🚀💎
$LCA - [SPAC] Merging with Golden Nugget[gambling]. Should easily hit $20-$25 in the next 4-6weeks. 💎
$SQ - ⭐1% of their ENTIRE company is now in BTC [50m]⭐ this means if BTC goes up it directly benefits them. Not to mention $SQ is just a great long. [LONG]💎👀🔥🚀
$LMND - ⭐90% of their customers are Millennials opening insurance their first time. [This shows HUGE potential long term growth!] [LONG]💎
$NEE - ⭐4:1 Split could run.Think AAPL & TSLA. [LONG]⚠️💎👀
$JWN - 4hr GRAVESTONE DOJI⚰ Daily MACD🐮4hr MACD🐻 Godly Support $11.70/$12.90 Resistance $14.22 [LONG]⚠️💎
🤑Notable Earnings🤑
OCTOBER
$DAL - 13th PM📈[Inverse Condors]
$JNJ - 13th PM⁉️
$JPM 13th PM⁉️
$UAL - 13th PM/AH?📈[Calls]
$BAC 14th PM📈[Calls]⭐
$WFC - 14th PM⁉️
$PYPL Estimated 18th ⁉️
$TUP Estimated 20th📈[Calls]
$LOGI Estimated 20th📉[Puts]
$LRN - 20th PM/AH?📈[Calls]⭐
$TXN - 20th PM/AH?📈[Calls]
$SNAP - 20th PM📉[Puts or Strangle]
$HOG - 20th PM⁉️
$NEE - 20th PM 📉[Puts]
$LMT - 20th PM📉[Puts]
$RTX - 20th PM📈[Calls]
$SKX - 20th AH 📉[Puts or Strangle]
$NFLX - 20th AH📈[Calls]⭐
$SIX - 20th PM/AH?📈[Calls or Strangles]
$BA - 21st PM📈[Calls]⭐
$SAVE - 21st PM/AH?📈[Calls]
$ORLY - 21st PM/AH?📈[Calls]
$MSFT - 21st AH📈[Calls]
$EBAY - 21st AH📉[Puts or Strangles]
$CMG 21st AH📈[Calls or Strangles]
$KO Estimated 21st📈[Calls]⭐
$AAL - 22nd PM📈[Calls or Strangles]⭐
$T - 22nd PM📈[Calls]
$INTC 22nd AH📈[Calls]⭐ 🔥🚀🌾Gold/Silver🌾🚀🔥 $AGC - 2x silver. Aka silver -1% AGC -2%. This is a day or swing trade. Depreciates $SLV - Long term silver hold $JNUG - 2x Gold. Same as AGC but for gold $NUGT/$GLD - Long term gold holds 🔮BET AGAINST THE MARKET🔮 $SPXS - 3X Inverse of SPY [The overall market] Spy +1% SPXS -3%. Spy -3% SPXS +9% [top 500 companies]🐻🐻 $SQQQ - Same as SPXS except top 100 companies🐻🐻 $VXX - Fear index/Volatility Index. This goes up with market feaunsurity. USUALLY inverses $SPY ⚖UPCOMING FDA INFO⚖ $BHC - FDA NEWS ANYDAY
$LPCN - FDA NEWS ANYDAY
$FBIO - FDA Oct 10th [same drug as TRVN]⭐
$ATXI - Oct 10th [same drug as TRVN]⭐
$SPPI - Oct 24th
$KALA - Oct 30th
$MRK - Oct 30th
$SUPN - Nov 8th ⭐
$ADMP - Nov 15th⭐
$ALKS - Nov 15th
$MYL - Nov 16th
$EIGR - Nov 20th
$LQDA - Nov 24th
🙏 I never intended to make any money from this group. All I truthfully wanted was a community I LOVED! If you choose to donate after a big win or to support my work; it is GREATLY appreciated. [Like too much to put into words lol] If you do donate please PM me; to let me know incase I miss it!🙏 ❤🖤💙💚🤎💛🧡💜🤍
My Links:
⭐Cashapp: $Hamstackz⭐
⭐Venmo: $JDH3703⭐
⭐paypal.me/PhillyDiamondhands⭐
Thanks you once again. I couldn't do this without all the support and kindness from this community!
submitted by Philly19111 to PhillyStockTelegram [link] [comments]

🌟MS-Services Store🌟- 💽 [H]WINDOWS 10 PRO & SERVER 2019| Office 2019 | Adobe Products & MORE ▣ Payments💲- Debit/Credit ▪ Google Pay ▪ Amazon E-Card ▪ BTC ▪ Venmo ▪ Paypal ▣

Welcome to the MS-Services Store

Greetings Redditors! For starters, you can trust us to actually deliver on our promise. We’ve been providing support and solutions to customers for over 5 years now. MS-Services delivers on our core values every day and we keep our promises which is to deliver outstanding IT support and services that propel your business forward.
About Me: I've been in the IT field for a little over 5 years and it's been a passion of mine since I started building my own gaming rig. As a new dad, this extra income helps me support my family and certainly makes a difference for us. Other interest of mine are, wrestling, Anime, gaming(PC) and plants!

Reviews

Check out some of our reviews via comments from previous threads here
|Reviews Thread 1|Reviews Thread 2|Reviews Thread 3|

Forms of Payment

Microsoft Services Store

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Windows Server 2019 Datacenter $45 Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo N/A N/A N/A N/A
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Adobe**_** Price Download CC /Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon-ecard PayPal Google Pay
Adobe Acrobat Pro DC 2019 $80 N/A Credit/Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card N/A Google Pay
Adobe Creative Cloud 1 Year $150 N/A Credit/Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card N/A Google Pay

Other Price Download CC /Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon-ecard PayPal Google Pay
Vmware workstation pro 15 $60 N/A Credit/Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card N/A Google Pay

WinServer 2016-Activation

Windows 10 and 10N differences

Software Downloads

How to install Windows 10 N

submitted by drexTech to MicrosoftServices [link] [comments]

We have moved to r/MicrosoftServices

Thank you for your business. Just to give you a heads up. I am now posting at https://www.reddit.com/MicrosoftServices/
Greetings Redditors! For starters, you can trust us to actually deliver on our promise. We’ve been providing support and solutions to customers for over 5 years now. MS-Services delivers on our core values every day and we keep our promises which is to deliver outstanding IT support and services that propel your business forward.
About Me: I've been in the IT field for a little over 5 years and it's been a passion of mine since I started building my own gaming rig. As a new dad, this extra income helps me support my family and certainly makes a difference for us. Other interest of mine are, wrestling, Anime, gaming(PC) and plants!

Reviews

Check out some of our reviews via comments from previous threads here
|Reviews Thread 1|Reviews Thread 2|Reviews Thread 3|

Forms of Payment

  • Due to PayPal changing their system yet again my preferred method is Debit/credit (Using Squareup - No account needed)
  • Amazon e-Cards When using -: Amazon-E-Gift Card Use this link... Make sure to complete the order and for email, Contact me for my email. I will reply back as soon as I can. This form of payment is rather quick and simple as long as you have an Amazon account
  • Google Pay Please PM me Here letting me know what you want and I'll send you a request- invoice You must have a Google account.
  • Paypal Accepting PayPal again! Please message me asking what you need. I'm not always available so please contact my colleague for taking orders Here he mostly take PayPal orders in case that's your only option. He's rather fast at replying too. He will work with you instead of me.
  • BTC Bitcoin Please message me what you are looking for. I will reply back as soon as I can.
  • Debit and credit cards (Squareup) - Our Payment Services allow you to accept payments from any US-issued and most non-US issued credit, debit, prepaid, or gift cards with the American Express, Discover, MasterCard, and Visa logos. Everything is safe and secured. The website that host this is very popular and well known.
  • Venmo Please PM me Here letting me know what you want as well as your Venmo user-name Very easy to use to send payments safely. Just download the app on your phone Google or iOS and create an account very fast.

Microsoft Services Store

Win_10 Price Download CC /Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon-ecard PayPal Google Pay
Windows 10 Home $40 32/64Bit Downloa Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal
Windows 10 Pro $45 32/64Bit Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal Google Pay
Windows 10 Pro N $35 32/64Bit Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal Google Pay
Windows 10 Edu $35 32/64Bit Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal
Win_8.1 Price Download CC /Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon-ecard PayPal Google Pay
Windows 8.1 Pro $25 32bit/64bit Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal Google Pay
MS_Office Price Download CC /Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon-ecard PayPal Google Pay
Office 2010 Pro Plus $20 Request Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal
Office 2013 Pro Plus $30 Request Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo N/A Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal
Office 2016 Pro Plus $50 Redeem Installer Credit/Debit Card Venmo N/A Amazon E-Gift Card N/A Google Pay
Office Home and Business for Mac 2019 $55 Download Credit/Debit Venmo BitCoin N/A N/A N/A
Office 2019 Pro Plus $60 Redeem Installer Credit/Debit Card Venmo N/A N/A N/A N/A
Win_Serv Price Download CC /Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon-ecard PayPal Google Pay
Windows Server 2016 $35 Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal Google Pay
Windows Server 2016 Ess $30 Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal Google Pay
Windows Server 2016 Datacenter $40 Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal Google Pay
Windows Server 2019 Datacenter $45 Download Credit/Debit Card Venmo N/A N/A N/A N/A
Project_ Price Download CC /Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon-ecard PayPal Google Pay
Project Professional 2016 $25 Redeem Installer Credit/Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal Google Pay
Visio_ Price Download CC /Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon-ecard PayPal Google Pay
Visio Professional 2016 $25 Redeem Installer Credit/Debit Venmo Bitcoin Amazon E-Gift Card PayPal Google Pay

WinServer 2016-Activation

  • *Activate successfully on Server 2016 Data Center Evaluation ISO downloaded directly from Microsoft. Use the following to activate (using elevated/admin command prompt):*DISM /online /Set-Edition:ServerDatacenter /ProductKey:AAAA-BBBB-CCCC-DDDD-EEEE /AcceptEula Make sure to use your own product key. Afterwards, your server may need to restart. Select y to restart and after restart check to see if its activated. If it is not, go to Settings>Update & Security>Activation>Change product key and re-enter the product key

Windows 10 and 10N differences

  • The only difference between the two is one version was made to have Windows media player pre-installed and the other has it removed. Other than that the operating systems are identical.

Software Downloads

  • We recommend that you download the ISO image of Windows or Office from our download section. We can ensure you keys will work on them.

How to install Windows 10 N

  • Downloaded the Install Tool and when installing says "I don't have an activation key", that will give you the option to download whatever version of Windows 10 you want, so pick Pro N and install it.
submitted by drexTech to microsoftsoftware [link] [comments]

What is Masternode? Why Is XinFin Masternode a Good Alternative to Proof of Work

Taking into account current market conditions more and more crypto enthusiasts are gaining interest in being rewarded for holding tokens. Ain’s it’s beneficial than patiently waiting for the moon? Traditional Proof-of-Work (PoW) mining is not in the best shape. Therefore miners are not an exception as it’s getting harder to stay profitable. Plus, PoW mining isn’t friendly for mass adoption and requires huge network consumption. Another important fact is that you do not have to be a trading guru to start gaining additional income. These are just a few reasons why more buzz have been around the Proof-of-Stake (PoS) and Masternodes (MN). We have to admit that they are eye-catching nowadays, and considered as the future of cryptocurrency.
Now you might be asking yourself “What is the Masternode?” Let’s get down to business!
Well, in a nutshell, masternode is a server on a decentralized network. Some blockchain protocols provide for the creation of particular nodes that perform additional work on the verification of transactions and bring their owners regular profits. Such nodes are called masternodes. They regularly get rewards for completing such actions. Builds a curiosity? Move on!
Why Do You Need to Launch a XinFin Masternode Now, Until it’s Not Too Late? XinFin Masternode is a good option for passive income, and there are several reasons why it might be the right time to start running a XinFin masternode or a few at once.
First of all, XinFin masternodes are not so famous for now. However, this is likely to change soon. The same applies to rewards, which will decrease every year. Secondly, the XinFin XDC coin is cheaper, which means that the entry threshold at the moment is much lower than before. It won’t cost you a fortune. Finally, it’s better to hold and get rewards than merely hope for prices to go up.
Although according to the CoinGecko 2018 report the numbers of both masternodes and masternode coins increased significantly during the past year, there is still a substantial drop in overall value. The total market cap for masternodes coins dropped from over $12 billion in January 2018 to just over $500 million by 2018’s end — a double-digit drop quarter-on-quarter. Nevertheless, it’s just the beginning of the XinFin. Remember, the early bird gets the worm!
What is the Average XinFin Masternode ROI? Take in mind, that ROI is a relative term in the context of cryptocurrency space. We got used to the practice that ROI in crypto space is a bit another term, unlike the traditional markets where XinFin ROI measures per year around 10%+ as per the past few months’ data.
How to Setup Masternode: It’s very easy to setup XinFin Masternode compare to setting us crypto mining facility for Bitcoin and ethereum.
XinFin vs bitcoin mining: XinFin Masternode needs the lowest hardware configuration to run masternode while bitcoin needs the high configuration of hardware to run bitcoin mining and this also results in high depreciation every month with high risk. While XinFin Masternode runs with a tiny VPS hosting plan with the lowest cost of operation.
Before the launch of XinFin main-net i used to do bitcoin and ethereum mining And now shifted to XinFin network after the launch of main-net
Disclaimer: Digital asset investment, Mining comes with high risk. This article is not for the purpose of investment, tax or legal advice. The author is not responsible for any review of the assets. Please consult with your financial advisor before Crypto Investment or starting mining facilities
Useful link for XinFin Masternode Here is a link on How to setup masternode.
IndSoft System partnership with XinFin for hosting masternode: Click here to know more about partnership.
Guide to setup node with one click installer
For any instant support join XinFin Telegram Group.
submitted by dojogang to u/dojogang [link] [comments]

India: Blockchain And Data Privacy: An India Perspective

Link to Mondaq: https://www.mondaq.com/india/fin-tech/978488/blockchain-and-data-privacy-an-india-perspective

A. Introduction

As a sequel to the first paper of Blockchain & Law article series titled 'A New Digital Order - Unveiling the Interplay of Law & Blockchain Technology', this paper explores the inter-operability of India's data privacy regime and blockchain technology. In this regard, recording of a webinar conducted on 'Blockchain & Data Privacy: An India Perspective' by the AKS Partners can be viewed on YouTube here.

B. Data privacy in India

Constitution of India

Article 21 of the Indian Constitution is a comprehensive, all-encompassing provision that inheres within itself basic, fundamental rights that are absolutely essential to the existence of a human being with dignity and personal liberty. In the judgment of K.S. Puttaswamy v. Union of India,1 a nine-judge bench of the Honourable Supreme Court of India held that the right to privacy falls within the contours of Article 21 and is incidental to life and personal liberty. This right to privacy includes the right to data protection and privacy.

Information Technology Act, 2000

In India, data privacy is governed by the Information Technology Act, 2000 ("IT Act") and the Information Technology (Reasonable security practices and procedures and sensitive personal data or information) Rules, 2011 ("SPDI Rules"). Sections 43A (Compensation for failure to protect data) of the IT Act provides a statutory right to a data provider to claim compensation for unapproved disclosure of information (including in breach of a contract). Under Section 72A (Punishment for disclosure of information in breach of lawful contract) of the IT Act, wherever any person including an intermediary discloses information obtained under a lawful contract without consent shall be punished with imprisonment or with fine or both.

SPDI Rules

The SPDI Rules constitute a set of basic obligations to be adhered to in circumstances where sensitive data is being collected. It may be noted that the SPDI Rules apply only to 'Sensitive Personal Data or Information'.2 The SPDI Rules lay down guidelines for collection (Rule 5) and transfer of information (Rule 7) and also mandatorily require body corporates to adopt and implement a policy for privacy and disclosure of information (Rule 4).
On 24 August 2011, the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology issued a clarification to the SPDI Rules ("Regulatory Clarification"). The Regulatory Clarification states that the SPDI Rules are applicable only to body corporates or persons located within India. Also, where a body corporate deals in data of any legal entity located within or outside India under a contractual arrangement, the SPDI Rules pertaining to collection (Rule 5) and disclosure of information (Rule 6) would not apply. It was also clarified that requirement to obtain written consent under Rule 5(1) of the SPDI Rules includes electronic consent as well.

The Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019 ("Bill")

The Bill is inspired from and is in many ways a replica of the European Union's General Data Protection Regulations ("GDPR"). The Bill lays down several provisions including in relation to crossborder transfer of data, sandboxing, privacy by design and introduces a more robust set of obligations for entities handling sensitive personal data. The Bill is currently pending before a Joint Parliamentary Committee. The Bill applies to and categorises data into 'Personal Data', 'Sensitive Personal Data' and 'Critical Personal Data'.

Sectoral regulations

Regulated sectors such as telecom and financial services have separate obligations of confidentiality which restricts disclosure and transfer of customer personal information and mandates use of such information only in the manner agreed with the customer. Certain sectoral regulators (like Reserve Bank of India) also mandate data localisation.

C. Blockchain technology and data privacy

For details on the working of a blockchain network, please refer to our previous paper here.
Coverage
The Bill defines 'Personal Data') as 'data about or relating to a natural person who is directly or indirectly identifiable'. This means where the origins of the data cannot be traced down to a natural person, the data would cease to be 'Personal Data'. Resultantly, storing the data in a manner where it cannot be traced to a natural person (including by introducing and implementing robust methods to address re-identification risks) may prove beneficial in reducing a blockchain network's interaction with data privacy regulations (such as by encryption or anonymisation of Personal Data).
Public v. Private Blockchain
Private blockchain which restricts and regulates network participation appears to be a more preferable fit when it comes to ensuring compliance with data privacy laws. Public blockchains with permissionless borders pose greater difficulty in procuring every participant to agree on and comply with relevant rules on protection of personal data.
Stakeholders
The Bill identifies three categories of stakeholders (similar to GDPR) viz. Data Principals, Data Fiduciary and Data Processor. The SPDI Rules only provides for data provider and body corporate or person collecting data. The term 'Processing' has been defined to include collection, storage, retrieval, adaptation, disclosure etc. (Section 3(31)). Accordingly, any data stored or transmitted on blockchain will amount to processing.
Blockchain network is a decentralised system with each node / miner (i.e. network participant) spread all over the world. There is no clear demarcation between a Data Principal and a Data Fiduciary or a Data Processor over a blockchain network. The way the network functions, no single person can be said to be in-charge of the network thereby making it all the more problematic for regulators to fix the compliance burden on a party. Accordingly, the question of determining the identity status and fixing liability of various participants attains significance and complexity over a distributed ledger network like blockchain.
Each node over the network functions as a Data Processor on account of participation in the verification of the data. At the same time one or more of such nodes may also be acting as a Data Principal. With respect to mining over the network while it is a single miner who is able to formulate a valid hash, all the other miners also participate in the mining activity when they attempt to arrive at the winning lottery number. Thus making such miner also a Data Processor. While fixing liability on a private blockchain network that restricts the number of network participants is comparatively less complex, the same would be quite challenging on a public blockchain network, such as Bitcoin. With regard to identifying the status and roles, the guidance issued by French data protection authority ("CNIL Guidance")3 in the context of GDPR is useful. The CNIL Guidance categorises blockchain actors into the following groups: (a) participants with full read and write access to the data; (b) participants with read only access; and (c) miners that validate the transactions.
Participants falling in category (a) above are Data Controllers (equivalent to a Data Fiduciary under the Bill) while categories (b) and (c) are not.
Collection and processing of data over a blockchain network
The Bill sets out a number of obligations that have to be performed by the Data Fiduciaries, some key compliances being, obtaining consent of the data principals, retaining the data only till absolutely necessary (Storage Limitation), providing notice to the Data Principals, ensuring data is used only for the purpose (which has to be specific, clear and lawful) for which it has been taken (Purpose Limitation). Rule 5 of the SPDI Rules also lays down similar obligations for collection of data. Key concerns that the inherent and intrinsic nature of the blockchain technology raises are as under:
Firstly, with respect to the Storage Limitation principle, the immutable nature of the technology prevents the data from being deleted once the purpose has been fulfilled.
Secondly, given the decentralised nature of blockchain, it becomes challenging to determine the exact purpose for which data is collected over such a widespread network and who is to keep a check that the data so collected is used only for such predefined purposes.
Thirdly, it is commonly argued that the network participants over a blockchain impliedly consent while sharing their data. This may not however fulfil the requirements under the Bill which requires consent to be clear, through an affirmative action. This gives birth to concomitant regulatory issues over a decentralised system as to who shall oblige with these compliances under the law and who should be made responsible / liable for any lapses in compliance.
Lastly, the Bill also proposes certain additional requirements such as transparent and fair processing and the Purpose Limitation. The blurred distinction in the status of identities in blockchain makes determining purpose and manner of processing challenging.
A detailed governance framework setting out roles and responsibilities, off-chain and on-chain personal data, may provide useful guidance towards addressing the aforementioned concerns.
Key rights of Data Principals

Right to Confirmation and Access

The Bill entitles the Data Principals to seek information regarding the types and nature of personal data stored with the Data Fiduciaries, or to ascertain the nature of processing activities that has been undertaken on his/her data, or seek a brief summary of processing activities undertaken. While enforcement of this right may not be technically difficult, however, blockchain networks may establish a proper governance framework that delineates a specific authority to pass over the requisite data to the data principal as and when asked for. The network may also consider laying out methods of searching and accessing the necessary information which may be de-encrypted with the use of the private key.

Right to Correction

Section 18 of the Bill and Rule 5 of the SPDI Rules provides the right to rectify or correct the data. Given the immutable nature of the decentralised ledger maintained on a blockchain, exercising this right may not be compatible. To accomplish alteration/correction of data would be a burdensome task since it will require a majority of nodes to come together to identify the data, alter and re-hash not just the concerned block but also all previous blocks as well. Alternatively, a new block with corrected information may be added once verified through the consensus mechanism.

Right to be Forgotten

The Bill introduces 'Right to be Forgotten' ("RTF"). RTF entitles data principals to request the removal of his/her personal data, without undue delay, from any business's storage. RTF has been in loggerheads with the inherent immutability of blockchain technology. Across jurisdictions the term 'forgotten' has been pegged with erasure and is construed in various senses in different jurisdictions, ranging from data anonymisation,4 destruction of hardware,5 putting data beyond use.6
Given the distinction within the types of blockchain, the modes for exercising RTF are uniform by and large. A widely discussed solution is the destruction of the private key, thereby rendering the data encrypted by a public key inaccessible.7 Owing to the setup of blockchain, a Data Principal may reach out to any entity in the chain that qualifies as a Data Fiduciary to enforce their rights. Similar
to the Google-Spain case,8 wherein data subject's action against Google remained unaffected by the fact that the data could have been removed by the newspaper's website itself.9 However, the nature of a public blockchain network that does not identify a central authority might prove somewhat problematic where the data principal seeks to enforce his/her right.
As countries are yet to formulate policies with respect to regulation of blockchains, some other alternatives for exercising RTF can be programming chameleon hashes, zero knowledge proofs or a censorable blockchain, as the same would be 'forgetful'.10
Cross-Border Transfer of Data
Chapter VII of the Bill, which deals with restrictions on cross-border transfer of data, requires a copy of the Sensitive Personal Data to be stored domestically while Critical Personal Data must exclusively be processed and stored in India. However, these clear demarcations blur when applied to a blockchain ecosystem where storage and processing of data can be universal. Transfer of Sensitive Personal Data, requires explicit consent and the transfer must be under a contract or an intra-group scheme approved by the data protection authority (envisaged to be established under the Bill). While both of these requirements may get fulfilled over a private blockchain easily, a public blockchain due to undefined groups and lack of a central entity / authority may find it more challenging to implement adequate safeguards on restricting such transfer. Over a private blockchain the central body may enter into e-contracts with any number of participants and also obtain their explicit consent.
Under the present regime, Rule 7 of the SPDI Rules provides that a transfer outside India may only be allowed where the country offers the same level of protection to the data. Again, enforcing this may be challenging over a public blockchain network comprising of thousands of nodes across borders. An in-built cross-border transfer consent clause in the governance framework or otherwise may also provide the needed legitimacy from the perspective of data privacy.

D. Jurisdictional Issues

The present uncertainty in law (including lack of adequate legal provisions) has resulted in jurisdictional issues concerning the domestic and transnational presence of the blockchain network. While Section 1(2) read with Section 75 of the IT Act accords limited extra-territorial applicability to the Act, the SPDI Rules, as mentioned in the Regulatory Clarification are applicable only to body corporates or persons located in India. Consequently, blockchain technology may need to comply with the IT Act to a certain extent, while, the mandate under the SPDI Rules will bind only the nodes/miners operating from India. As a result, the network participants operating outside India on the same blockchain will not be required to comply with the SPDI Rules or IT Act.
Section 2 of the Bill affords extra-territorial application but only in certain limited circumstances viz. where the processing which takes place outside India is in connection with any business in India, or which involves the profiling of individuals within India. This will result in a subjective assessment of blockchains and its purposes in order to ascertain the applicability of the provisions of the Bill.
The Civil-Commercial Courts in India, have applied the test as to whether a website is an 'interactive website'11 for determination of jurisdiction, in relation to websites that do not have a physical place of business in a jurisdiction.12 In other words, wherever a website facilitates or even intends to facilitate active trade / commercial transactions in jurisdictions where it does not have a physical place of business, in such cases cause of action, if any, arises in all such jurisdictions where the website operates interactively. However, applying such a test on a blockchain network may not be so straightforward. The intrinsic nature of the blockchain technology allows for processing and storage of data at multiple domestic and international jurisdictions simultaneously. Resultantly, in both domestic as well as international, identification of the place of cause of action becomes complex. The complexity increases as identification of the individuals processing and storing data (nodes) would require de-anonymisation.
The determination of applicable laws will also depend on the nature of a blockchain network. It is practically more difficult to regulate a public blockchain network than a private blockchain network. In a private blockchain the architect/controlling entity may determine the governing laws or the governance framework may provide for a governing law.
In light of the foregoing, it may come as a mammoth task for governments to enforce their respective data protection and cyber-security legislations against such transnational networks without consensus on a multi-national treaty suggesting a model law to regulate the use of blockchain networks. In the alternative, laws may promote self-regulation by merely identifying basic tenets of regulations like governing law, data privacy, certification etc. Non-compliance may include compulsory suspension/termination of participation rights of nodes or blocking access to blockchains which do not provide for adequate self-regulation.
The developers of blockchain networks may consider incorporating dispute resolution and regulatory mechanisms as integral parts of the networks. The developers may also consider coding networks with peer-to-peer decentralized courts such as 'kleros' or 'codelegit' as part of a network's dispute resolution process.

E. Way forward

Blockchain technology carries the potential of disrupting business operations right from supply, manufacturing, logistics and final consumption especially in a post Covid-19 era. Please refer to our previous article on use cases of blockchain here. Accordingly, it is crucial that data privacy laws (with adequate concessions, where necessary) be treated as an enabler and not inhibitor to continued adoption of blockchain technology. Certain additional rights like data portability and right to withdraw consent adds to the complexity of having a compliant blockchain network. Certain obligations like mandatory registration may also be problematic if the government notifies certain blockchain network as a significant data fiduciaries.
Set out below are few indicative measures towards harmonious application of data privacy laws and blockchain technology:
1) Every blockchain network must provide a detailed governance framework that is in alignment with the basic requirements under data privacy regulations. Such a framework would have to be binding on all participants over a blockchain network, stating all rights, obligations and duties of parties, including a detailed mechanism for communication, security measures, cross-border data transfer, and grievance redressal and may even set out applicable laws etc.
2) Such a self-governance framework could also include a privacy by design policy and provisions for Data Protection Impact Assessment (as set out in Chapter VI of the Bill).
3) 'Pruning' is used for situations where historical blocks of data beyond a certain timeline are deleted. Similarly, where data has to be altered or rectified, the same may be done by 'forking' where data is altered or deleted, the hash changed and a new fork is created. However, over a public blockchain Pruning and Forking can be challenging and may require a huge amount of computing consensus.
4) To ensure the safeguarding of right to privacy a Memory Optimized and Flexible Blockchain (MOF-BC) can be considered as an effective measure. It enables the IoT (Internet of Things) users and service providers to edit their transactions, thereby altering the details of data entry.13
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