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How EpiK Protocol “Saved the Miners” from Filecoin with the E2P Storage Model?

How EpiK Protocol “Saved the Miners” from Filecoin with the E2P Storage Model?

https://preview.redd.it/n5jzxozn27v51.png?width=2222&format=png&auto=webp&s=6cd6bd726582bbe2c595e1e467aeb3fc8aabe36f
On October 20, Eric Yao, Head of EpiK China, and Leo, Co-Founder & CTO of EpiK, visited Deep Chain Online Salon, and discussed “How EpiK saved the miners eliminated by Filecoin by launching E2P storage model”. ‘?” The following is a transcript of the sharing.
Sharing Session
Eric: Hello, everyone, I’m Eric, graduated from School of Information Science, Tsinghua University. My Master’s research was on data storage and big data computing, and I published a number of industry top conference papers.
Since 2013, I have invested in Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Dogcoin, EOS and other well-known blockchain projects, and have been settling in the chain circle as an early technology-based investor and industry observer with 2 years of blockchain experience. I am also a blockchain community initiator and technology evangelist
Leo: Hi, I’m Leo, I’m the CTO of EpiK. Before I got involved in founding EpiK, I spent 3 to 4 years working on blockchain, public chain, wallets, browsers, decentralized exchanges, task distribution platforms, smart contracts, etc., and I’ve made some great products. EpiK is an answer to the question we’ve been asking for years about how blockchain should be landed, and we hope that EpiK is fortunate enough to be an answer for you as well.
Q & A
Deep Chain Finance:
First of all, let me ask Eric, on October 15, Filecoin’s main website launched, which aroused everyone’s attention, but at the same time, the calls for fork within Filecoin never stopped. The EpiK protocol is one of them. What I want to know is, what kind of project is EpiK Protocol? For what reason did you choose to fork in the first place? What are the differences between the forked project and Filecoin itself?
Eric:
First of all, let me answer the first question, what kind of project is EpiK Protocol.
With the Fourth Industrial Revolution already upon us, comprehensive intelligence is one of the core goals of this stage, and the key to comprehensive intelligence is how to make machines understand what humans know and learn new knowledge based on what they already know. And the knowledge graph scale is a key step towards full intelligence.
In order to solve the many challenges of building large-scale knowledge graphs, the EpiK Protocol was born. EpiK Protocol is a decentralized, hyper-scale knowledge graph that organizes and incentivizes knowledge through decentralized storage technology, decentralized autonomous organizations, and generalized economic models. Members of the global community will expand the horizons of artificial intelligence into a smarter future by organizing all areas of human knowledge into a knowledge map that will be shared and continuously updated for the eternal knowledge vault of humanity
And then, for what reason was the fork chosen in the first place?
EpiK’s project founders are all senior blockchain industry practitioners and have been closely following the industry development and application scenarios, among which decentralized storage is a very fresh application scenario.
However, in the development process of Filecoin, the team found that due to some design mechanisms and historical reasons, the team found that Filecoin had some deviations from the original intention of the project at that time, such as the overly harsh penalty mechanism triggered by the threat to weaken security, and the emergence of the computing power competition leading to the emergence of computing power monopoly by large miners, thus monopolizing the packaging rights, which can be brushed with computing power by uploading useless data themselves.
The emergence of these problems will cause the data environment on Filecoin to get worse and worse, which will lead to the lack of real value of the data in the chain, high data redundancy, and the difficulty of commercializing the project to land.
After paying attention to the above problems, the project owner proposes to introduce multi-party roles and a decentralized collaboration platform DAO to ensure the high value of the data on the chain through a reasonable economic model and incentive mechanism, and store the high-value data: knowledge graph on the blockchain through decentralized storage, so that the lack of value of the data on the chain and the monopoly of large miners’ computing power can be solved to a large extent.
Finally, what differences exist between the forked project and Filecoin itself?
On the basis of the above-mentioned issues, EpiK’s design is very different from Filecoin, first of all, EpiK is more focused in terms of business model, and it faces a different market and track from the cloud storage market where Filecoin is located because decentralized storage has no advantage over professional centralized cloud storage in terms of storage cost and user experience.
EpiK focuses on building a decentralized knowledge graph, which reduces data redundancy and safeguards the value of data in the distributed storage chain while preventing the knowledge graph from being tampered with by a few people, thus making the commercialization of the entire project reasonable and feasible.
From the perspective of ecological construction, EpiK treats miners more friendly and solves the pain point of Filecoin to a large extent, firstly, it changes the storage collateral and commitment collateral of Filecoin to one-time collateral.
Miners participating in EpiK Protocol are only required to pledge 1000 EPK per miner, and only once before mining, not in each sector.
What is the concept of 1000 EPKs, you only need to participate in pre-mining for about 50 days to get this portion of the tokens used for pledging. The EPK pre-mining campaign is currently underway, and it runs from early September to December, with a daily release of 50,000 ERC-20 standard EPKs, and the pre-mining nodes whose applications are approved will divide these tokens according to the mining ratio of the day, and these tokens can be exchanged 1:1 directly after they are launched on the main network. This move will continue to expand the number of miners eligible to participate in EPK mining.
Secondly, EpiK has a more lenient penalty mechanism, which is different from Filecoin’s official consensus, storage and contract penalties, because the protocol can only be uploaded by field experts, which is the “Expert to Person” mode. Every miner needs to be backed up, which means that if one or more miners are offline in the network, it will not have much impact on the network, and the miner who fails to upload the proof of time and space in time due to being offline will only be forfeited by the authorities for the effective computing power of this sector, not forfeiting the pledged coins.
If the miner can re-submit the proof of time and space within 28 days, he will regain the power.
Unlike Filecoin’s 32GB sectors, EpiK’s encapsulated sectors are smaller, only 8M each, which will solve Filecoin’s sector space wastage problem to a great extent, and all miners have the opportunity to complete the fast encapsulation, which is very friendly to miners with small computing power.
The data and quality constraints will also ensure that the effective computing power gap between large and small miners will not be closed.
Finally, unlike Filecoin’s P2P data uploading model, EpiK changes the data uploading and maintenance to E2P uploading, that is, field experts upload and ensure the quality and value of the data on the chain, and at the same time introduce the game relationship between data storage roles and data generation roles through a rational economic model to ensure the stability of the whole system and the continuous high-quality output of the data on the chain.
Deep Chain Finance:
Eric, on the eve of Filecoin’s mainline launch, issues such as Filecoin’s pre-collateral have aroused a lot of controversy among the miners. In your opinion, what kind of impact will Filecoin bring to itself and the whole distributed storage ecosystem after it launches? Do you think that the current confusing FIL prices are reasonable and what should be the normal price of FIL?
Eric:
Filecoin mainnet has launched and many potential problems have been exposed, such as the aforementioned high pre-security problem, the storage resource waste and computing power monopoly caused by unreasonable sector encapsulation, and the harsh penalty mechanism, etc. These problems are quite serious, and will greatly affect the development of Filecoin ecology.
These problems are relatively serious, and will greatly affect the development of Filecoin ecology, here are two examples to illustrate. For example, the problem of big miners computing power monopoly, now after the big miners have monopolized computing power, there will be a very delicate state — — the miners save a file data with ordinary users. There is no way to verify this matter in the chain, whether what he saved is uploaded by himself or someone else. And after the big miners have monopolized computing power, there will be a very delicate state — — the miners will save a file data with ordinary users, there is no way to verify this matter in the chain, whether what he saved is uploaded by himself or someone else. Because I can fake another identity to upload data for myself, but that leads to the fact that for any miner I go to choose which data to save. I have only one goal, and that is to brush my computing power and how fast I can brush my computing power.
There is no difference between saving other people’s data and saving my own data in the matter of computing power. When I save someone else’s data, I don’t know that data. Somewhere in the world, the bandwidth quality between me and him may not be good enough.
The best option is to store my own local data, which makes sense, and that results in no one being able to store data on the chain at all. They only store their own data, because it’s the most economical for them, and the network has essentially no storage utility, no one is providing storage for the masses of retail users.
The harsh penalty mechanism will also severely deplete the miner’s profits, because DDOS attacks are actually a very common attack technique for the attacker, and for a big miner, he can get a very high profit in a short period of time if he attacks other customers, and this thing is a profitable thing for all big miners.
Now as far as the status quo is concerned, the vast majority of miners are actually not very well maintained, so they are not very well protected against these low-DDOS attacks. So the penalty regime is grim for them.
The contradiction between the unreasonable system and the demand will inevitably lead to the evolution of the system in a more reasonable direction, so there will be many forked projects that are more reasonable in terms of mechanism, thus attracting Filecoin miners and a diversion of storage power.
Since each project is in the field of decentralized storage track, the demand for miners is similar or even compatible with each other, so miners will tend to fork the projects with better economic benefits and business scenarios, so as to filter out the projects with real value on the ground.
For the chaotic FIL price, because FIL is also a project that has gone through several years, carrying too many expectations, so it can only be said that the current situation has its own reasons for existence. As for the reasonable price of FIL there is no way to make a prediction because in the long run, it is necessary to consider the commercialization of the project to land and the value of the actual chain of data. In other words, we need to keep observing whether Filecoin will become a game of computing power or a real value carrier.
Deep Chain Finance:
Leo, we just mentioned that the pre-collateral issue of Filecoin caused the dissatisfaction of miners, and after Filecoin launches on the main website, the second round of space race test coins were directly turned into real coins, and the official selling of FIL hit the market phenomenon, so many miners said they were betrayed. What I want to know is, EpiK’s main motto is “save the miners eliminated by Filecoin”, how to deal with the various problems of Filecoin, and how will EpiK achieve “save”?
Leo:
Originally Filecoin’s tacit approval of the computing power makeup behavior was to declare that the official directly chose to abandon the small miners. And this test coin turned real coin also hurt the interests of the loyal big miners in one cut, we do not know why these low-level problems, we can only regret.
EpiK didn’t do it to fork Filecoin, but because EpiK to build a shared knowledge graph ecology, had to integrate decentralized storage in, so the most hardcore Filecoin’s PoRep and PoSt decentralized verification technology was chosen. In order to ensure the quality of knowledge graph data, EpiK only allows community-voted field experts to upload data, so EpiK naturally prevents miners from making up computing power, and there is no reason for the data that has no value to take up such an expensive decentralized storage resource.
With the inability to make up computing power, the difference between big miners and small miners is minimal when the amount of knowledge graph data is small.
We can’t say that we can save the big miners, but we are definitely the optimal choice for the small miners who are currently in the market to be eliminated by Filecoin.
Deep Chain Finance:
Let me ask Eric: According to EpiK protocol, EpiK adopts the E2P model, which allows only experts in the field who are voted to upload their data. This is very different from Filecoin’s P2P model, which allows individuals to upload data as they wish. In your opinion, what are the advantages of the E2P model? If only voted experts can upload data, does that mean that the EpiK protocol is not available to everyone?
Eric:
First, let me explain the advantages of the E2P model over the P2P model.
There are five roles in the DAO ecosystem: miner, coin holder, field expert, bounty hunter and gateway. These five roles allocate the EPKs generated every day when the main network is launched.
The miner owns 75% of the EPKs, the field expert owns 9% of the EPKs, and the voting user shares 1% of the EPKs.
The other 15% of the EPK will fluctuate based on the daily traffic to the network, and the 15% is partly a game between the miner and the field expert.
The first describes the relationship between the two roles.
The first group of field experts are selected by the Foundation, who cover different areas of knowledge (a wide range of knowledge here, including not only serious subjects, but also home, food, travel, etc.) This group of field experts can recommend the next group of field experts, and the recommended experts only need to get 100,000 EPK votes to become field experts.
The field expert’s role is to submit high-quality data to the miner, who is responsible for encapsulating this data into blocks.
Network activity is judged by the amount of EPKs pledged by the entire network for daily traffic (1 EPK = 10 MB/day), with a higher percentage indicating higher data demand, which requires the miner to increase bandwidth quality.
If the data demand decreases, this requires field experts to provide higher quality data. This is similar to a library with more visitors needing more seats, i.e., paying the miner to upgrade the bandwidth.
When there are fewer visitors, more money is needed to buy better quality books to attract visitors, i.e., money for bounty hunters and field experts to generate more quality knowledge graph data. The game between miners and field experts is the most important game in the ecosystem, unlike the game between the authorities and big miners in the Filecoin ecosystem.
The game relationship between data producers and data storers and a more rational economic model will inevitably lead to an E2P model that generates stored on-chain data of much higher quality than the P2P model, and the quality of bandwidth for data access will be better than the P2P model, resulting in greater business value and better landing scenarios.
I will then answer the question of whether this means that the EpiK protocol will not be universally accessible to all.
The E2P model only qualifies the quality of the data generated and stored, not the roles in the ecosystem; on the contrary, with the introduction of the DAO model, the variety of roles introduced in the EpiK ecosystem (which includes the roles of ordinary people) is not limited. (Bounty hunters who can be competent in their tasks) gives roles and possibilities for how everyone can participate in the system in a more logical way.
For example, a miner with computing power can provide storage, a person with a certain domain knowledge can apply to become an expert (this includes history, technology, travel, comics, food, etc.), and a person willing to mark and correct data can become a bounty hunter.
The presence of various efficient support tools from the project owner will lower the barriers to entry for various roles, thus allowing different people to do their part in the system and together contribute to the ongoing generation of a high-quality decentralized knowledge graph.
Deep Chain Finance:
Leo, some time ago, EpiK released a white paper and an economy whitepaper, explaining the EpiK concept from the perspective of technology and economy model respectively. What I would like to ask is, what are the shortcomings of the current distributed storage projects, and how will EpiK protocol be improved?
Leo:
Distributed storage can easily be misunderstood as those of Ali’s OceanDB, but in the field of blockchain, we should focus on decentralized storage first.
There is a big problem with the decentralized storage on the market now, which is “why not eat meat porridge”.
How to understand it? Decentralized storage is cheaper than centralized storage because of its technical principle, and if it is, the centralized storage is too rubbish for comparison.
What incentive does the average user have to spend more money on decentralized storage to store data?
Is it safer?
Existence miners can shut down at any time on decentralized storage by no means save a share of security in Ariadne and Amazon each.
More private?
There’s no difference between encrypted presence on decentralized storage and encrypted presence on Amazon.
Faster?
The 10,000 gigabytes of bandwidth in decentralized storage simply doesn’t compare to the fiber in a centralized server room. This is the root problem of the business model, no one is using it, no one is buying it, so what’s the big vision.
The goal of EpiK is to guide all community participants in the co-construction and sharing of field knowledge graph data, which is the best way for robots to understand human knowledge, and the more knowledge graph data there is, the more knowledge a robot has, the more intelligent it is exponentially, i.e., EpiK uses decentralized storage technology. The value of exponentially growing data is captured with linearly growing hardware costs, and that’s where the buy-in for EPK comes in.
Organized data is worth a lot more than organized hard drives, and there is a demand for EPK when robots have the need for intelligence.
Deep Chain Finance:
Let me ask Leo, how many forked projects does Filecoin have so far, roughly? Do you think there will be more or less waves of fork after the mainnet launches? Have the requirements of the miners at large changed when it comes to participation?
Leo:
We don’t have specific statistics, now that the main network launches, we feel that forking projects will increase, there are so many restricted miners in the market that they need to be organized efficiently.
However, we currently see that most forked projects are simply modifying the parameters of Filecoin’s economy model, which is undesirable, and this level of modification can’t change the status quo of miners making up computing power, and the change to the market is just to make some of the big miners feel more comfortable digging up, which won’t help to promote the decentralized storage ecology to land.
We need more reasonable landing scenarios so that idle mining resources can be turned into effective productivity, pitching a 100x coin instead of committing to one Fomo sentiment after another.
Deep Chain Finance:
How far along is the EpiK Protocol project, Eric? What other big moves are coming in the near future?
Eric:
The development of the EpiK Protocol is divided into 5 major phases.
(a) Phase I testing of the network “Obelisk”.
Phase II Main Network 1.0 “Rosetta”.
Phase III Main Network 2.0 “Hammurabi”.
(a) The Phase IV Enrichment Knowledge Mapping Toolkit.
The fifth stage is to enrich the knowledge graph application ecology.
Currently in the first phase of testing network “Obelisk”, anyone can sign up to participate in the test network pre-mining test to obtain ERC20 EPK tokens, after the mainnet exchange on a one-to-one basis.
We have recently launched ERC20 EPK on Uniswap, you can buy and sell it freely on Uniswap or download our EpiK mobile wallet.
In addition, we will soon launch the EpiK Bounty platform, and welcome all community members to do tasks together to build the EpiK community. At the same time, we are also pushing forward the centralized exchange for token listing.
Users’ Questions
User 1:
Some KOLs said, Filecoin consumed its value in the next few years, so it will plunge, what do you think?
Eric:
First of all, the judgment of the market is to correspond to the cycle, not optimistic about the FIL first judgment to do is not optimistic about the economic model of the project, or not optimistic about the distributed storage track.
First of all, we are very confident in the distributed storage track and will certainly face a process of growth and decline, so as to make a choice for a better project.
Since the existing group of miners and the computing power already produced is fixed, and since EpiK miners and FIL miners are compatible, anytime miners will also make a choice for more promising and economically viable projects.
Filecoin consumes the value of the next few years this time, so it will plunge.
Regarding the market issues, the plunge is not a prediction, in the industry or to keep learning iteration and value judgment. Because up and down market sentiment is one aspect, there will be more very important factors. For example, the big washout in March this year, so it can only be said that it will slow down the development of the FIL community. But prices are indeed unpredictable.
User2:
Actually, in the end, if there are no applications and no one really uploads data, the market value will drop, so what are the landing applications of EpiK?
Leo: The best and most direct application of EpiK’s knowledge graph is the question and answer system, which can be an intelligent legal advisor, an intelligent medical advisor, an intelligent chef, an intelligent tour guide, an intelligent game strategy, and so on.
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Acceptance of cryptocurrencies in the world and how's PYRK different

Acceptance of cryptocurrencies in the world and how's PYRK different
Greetings. 👋🏻 Today we will tell you about the acceptance of cryptocurrencies in the world and the advantages of PYRK.
Today, the topic of distributed technologies, including blockchain and crypto assets, is very relevant. The use of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology has become one of the answers to the opportunities and challenges of the development of the global economy.
Digital currencies are a new stage in the evolution of money. In the digital economy, the functions of money remain the same, but the requirements for them increase:
🔹 transition to cashless (digital) form;
🔹 minimum cost of storing cash;
🔹 maximum unification of technology for the transfer and storage of value;
🔹 the possibility of self-settlement regardless of the location of the sender;
🔹 lack of intermediaries and third parties in settlements and payments;
🔹 speed, convenience and a high degree of reliability of payments.
The crisis of confidence in the existing world order and the current system of state regulation of the economy led to the development of decentralization and the emergence of digital assets, cryptocurrencies.
According to the creators, in order to use cryptocurrency, it is enough to install the client program and create an account to which the electronic wallet will be linked. After that, any owner of a laptop/smartphone with Internet access will be able to exchange payment units with other network users without intermediaries.
📌 PYRK is a privacy-oriented cryptographic currency based on the work of Bitcoin, Dash, and Digibyte. Its distinctiveness lies in the application of the mechanism of the triple Proof-of-Work algorithm, which significantly increases the security of the system.
📌 Also, PYRK uses the Multishield difficulty adjustment algorithm to prevent difficulty spike issues resulting from burst mining. MultiShield is designed to let the difficulty "fall" very fast so that the chain doesn't freeze.
Other distinctive features of PYRK:
✔️ NO pre-mining, NO Hidden Blocks, Fair Launch
✔️ Initial block reward = 100 Pyrk
✔️ Descending Reward Reduction every 100,000 Blocks
✔️ Block Time: 90 Seconds
✔️ Max Circulation: 100M Pyrk
✔️ Private send transactions
✔️ Masternodes (Initial collateral 1000 Pyrk)
✔️ Community Fund (Up to 10% of Monthly Mining Reward)
📢 Find out more about the benefits of PYRK here: https://www.pyrk.org
https://preview.redd.it/9t7yeasjv9951.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=c46971856820ffac050fc6c0568575f945af994e
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Review and Prospect of Crypto Economy-Development and Evolution of Consensus Mechanism (2)

Review and Prospect of Crypto Economy-Development and Evolution of Consensus Mechanism (2)

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Foreword
The consensus mechanism is one of the important elements of the blockchain and the core rule of the normal operation of the distributed ledger. It is mainly used to solve the trust problem between people and determine who is responsible for generating new blocks and maintaining the effective unification of the system in the blockchain system. Thus, it has become an everlasting research hot topic in blockchain.
This article starts with the concept and role of the consensus mechanism. First, it enables the reader to have a preliminary understanding of the consensus mechanism as a whole; then starting with the two armies and the Byzantine general problem, the evolution of the consensus mechanism is introduced in the order of the time when the consensus mechanism is proposed; Then, it briefly introduces the current mainstream consensus mechanism from three aspects of concept, working principle and representative project, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of the mainstream consensus mechanism; finally, it gives suggestions on how to choose a consensus mechanism for blockchain projects and pointed out the possibility of the future development of the consensus mechanism.
Contents
First, concept and function of the consensus mechanism
1.1 Concept: The core rules for the normal operation of distributed ledgers
1.2 Role: Solve the trust problem and decide the generation and maintenance of new blocks
1.2.1 Used to solve the trust problem between people
1.2.2 Used to decide who is responsible for generating new blocks and maintaining effective unity in the blockchain system
1.3 Mainstream model of consensus algorithm
Second, the origin of the consensus mechanism
2.1 The two armies and the Byzantine generals
2.1.1 The two armies problem
2.1.2 The Byzantine generals problem
2.2 Development history of consensus mechanism
2.2.1 Classification of consensus mechanism
2.2.2 Development frontier of consensus mechanism
Third, Common Consensus System
Fourth, Selection of consensus mechanism and summary of current situation
4.1 How to choose a consensus mechanism that suits you
4.1.1 Determine whether the final result is important
4.1.2 Determine how fast the application process needs to be
4.1.2 Determining the degree to which the application requires for decentralization
4.1.3 Determine whether the system can be terminated
4.1.4 Select a suitable consensus algorithm after weighing the advantages and disadvantages
4.2 Future development of consensus mechanism
Last lecture review: Chapter 1 Concept and Function of Consensus Mechanism plus Chapter 2 Origin of Consensus Mechanism
Chapter 3 Common Consensus Mechanisms (Part 1)
Figure 6 Summary of relatively mainstream consensus mechanisms
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Source: Hasib Anwar, "Consensus Algorithms: The Root Of The Blockchain Technology"
The picture above shows 14 relatively mainstream consensus mechanisms summarized by a geek Hasib Anwar, including PoW (Proof of Work), PoS (Proof of Stake), DPoS (Delegated Proof of Stake), LPoS (Lease Proof of Stake), PoET ( Proof of Elapsed Time), PBFT (Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance), SBFT (Simple Byzantine Fault Tolerance), DBFT (Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance), DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph), Proof-of-Activity (Proof of Activity), Proof-of- Importance (Proof of Importance), Proof-of-Capacity (Proof of Capacity), Proof-of-Burn ( Proof of Burn), Proof-of-Weight (Proof of Weight).
Next, we will mainly introduce and analyze the top ten consensus mechanisms of the current blockchain.
》POW
-Concept:
Work proof mechanism. That is, the proof of work means that it takes a certain amount of computer time to confirm the work.
-Principle:
Figure 7 PoW work proof principle
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The PoW represented by Bitcoin uses the SHA-256 algorithm function, which is a 256-bit hash algorithm in the password hash function family:
Proof of work output = SHA256 (SHA256 (block header));
if (output of proof of work if (output of proof of work >= target value), change the random number, recursive i logic, continue to compare with the target value.
New difficulty value = old difficulty value* (time spent by last 2016 blocks /20160 minutes)
Target value = maximum target value / difficulty value
The maximum target value is a fixed number. If the last 2016 blocks took less than 20160 minutes, then this coefficient will be small, and the target value will be adjusted bigger, if not, the target value will be adjusted smaller. Bitcoin mining difficulty and block generation speed will be inversely proportional to the appropriate adjustment of block generation speed.
-Representative applications: BTC, etc.
》POS
-Concept:
Proof of stake. That is, a mechanism for reaching consensus based on the holding currency. The longer the currency is held, the greater the probability of getting a reward.
-Principle:
PoS implementation algorithm formula: hash(block_header) = Coin age calculation formula: coinage = number of coins * remaining usage time of coins
Among them, coinage means coin age, which means that the older the coin age, the easier it is to get answers. The calculation of the coin age is obtained by multiplying the coins owned by the miner by the remaining usage time of each coin, which also means that the more coins you have, the easier it is to get answers. In this way, pos solves the problem of wasting resources in pow, and miners cannot own 51% coins from the entire network, so it also solves the problem of 51% attacks.
-Representative applications: ETH, etc.
》DPoS
-Concept:
Delegated proof of stake. That is, currency holding investors select super nodes by voting to operate the entire network , similar to the people's congress system.
-Principle:
The DPOS algorithm is divided into two parts. Elect a group of block producers and schedule production.
Election: Only permanent nodes with the right to be elected can be elected, and ultimately only the top N witnesses can be elected. These N individuals must obtain more than 50% of the votes to be successfully elected. In addition, this list will be re-elected at regular intervals.
Scheduled production: Under normal circumstances, block producers take turns to generate a block every 3 seconds. Assuming that no producer misses his order, then the chain they produce is bound to be the longest chain. When a witness produces a block, a block needs to be generated every 2s. If the specified time is exceeded, the current witness will lose the right to produce and the right will be transferred to the next witness. Then the witness is not only unpaid, but also may lose his identity.
-Representative applications: EOS, etc.
》DPoW
-Concept:
Delayed proof of work. A new-generation consensus mechanism based on PoB and DPoS. Miners use their own computing power, through the hash algorithm, and finally prove their work, get the corresponding wood, wood is not tradable. After the wood has accumulated to a certain amount, you can go to the burning site to burn the wood. This can achieve a balance between computing power and mining rights.
-Principle:
In the DPoW-based blockchain, miners are no longer rewarded tokens, but "wood" that can be burned, burning wood. Miners use their own computing power, through the hash algorithm, and finally prove their work, get the corresponding wood, wood is not tradable. After the wood has accumulated to a certain amount, you can go to the burning site to burn the wood. Through a set of algorithms, people who burn more wood or BP or a group of BP can obtain the right to generate blocks in the next event segment, and get rewards (tokens) after successful block generation. Since more than one person may burn wood in a time period, the probability of producing blocks in the next time period is determined by the amount of wood burned by oneself. The more it is burned, the higher the probability of obtaining block rights in the next period.
Two node types: notary node and normal node.
The 64 notary nodes are elected by the stakeholders of the dPoW blockchain, and the notarized confirmed blocks can be added from the dPoW blockchain to the attached PoW blockchain. Once a block is added, the hash value of the block will be added to the Bitcoin transaction signed by 33 notary nodes, and a hash will be created to the dPow block record of the Bitcoin blockchain. This record has been notarized by most notary nodes in the network. In order to avoid wars on mining between notary nodes, and thereby reduce the efficiency of the network, Komodo designed a mining method that uses a polling mechanism. This method has two operating modes. In the "No Notary" (No Notary) mode, all network nodes can participate in mining, which is similar to the traditional PoW consensus mechanism. In the "Notaries Active" mode, network notaries use a significantly reduced network difficulty rate to mine. In the "Notary Public Activation" mode, each notary public is allowed to mine a block with its current difficulty, while other notary public nodes must use 10 times the difficulty of mining, and all normal nodes use 100 times the difficulty of the notary public node.
Figure 8 DPoW operation process without a notary node
📷
https://preview.redd.it/3yuzpemd4db51.png?width=500&format=png&auto=webp&s=f3bc2a1c97b13cb861414d3eb23a312b42ea6547
-Representative applications: CelesOS, Komodo, etc.
CelesOS Research Institute丨DPoW consensus mechanism-combustible mining and voting
》PBFT
-Concept:
Practical Byzantine fault tolerance algorithm. That is, the complexity of the algorithm is reduced from exponential to polynomial level, making the Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithm feasible in practical system applications.
-Principle:
Figure 9 PBFT algorithm principle
📷
https://preview.redd.it/8as7rgre4db51.png?width=567&format=png&auto=webp&s=372be730af428f991375146efedd5315926af1ca
First, the client sends a request to the master node to call the service operation, and then the master node broadcasts other copies of the request. All copies execute the request and send the result back to the client. The client needs to wait for f+1 different replica nodes to return the same result as the final result of the entire operation.
Two qualifications: 1. All nodes must be deterministic. That is to say, the results of the operation must be the same under the same conditions and parameters. 2. All nodes must start from the same status. Under these two limited qualifications, even if there are failed replica nodes, the PBFT algorithm agrees on the total order of execution of all non-failed replica nodes, thereby ensuring security.
-Representative applications: Tendermint Consensus, etc.
Next Lecture: Chapter 3 Common Consensus Mechanisms (Part 2) + Chapter 4 Consensus Mechanism Selection and Status Summary
CelesOS
As the first DPOW financial blockchain operating system, CelesOS adopts consensus mechanism 3.0 to break through the "impossible triangle", which can provide high TPS while also allowing for decentralization. Committed to creating a financial blockchain operating system that embraces supervision, providing services for financial institutions and the development of applications on the supervision chain, and formulating a role and consensus ecological supervision layer agreement for supervision.
The CelesOS team is dedicated to building a bridge between blockchain and regulatory agencies/financial industry. We believe that only blockchain technology that cooperates with regulators will have a real future. We believe in and contribute to achieving this goal.

📷Website
https://www.celesos.com/
📷 Telegram
https://t.me/celeschain
📷 Twitter
https://twitter.com/CelesChain
📷 Reddit
https://www.reddit.com/useCelesOS
📷 Medium
https://medium.com/@celesos
📷 Facebook
https://www.facebook.com/CelesOS1
📷 Youtube
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC1Xsd8wU957D-R8RQVZPfGA
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How Lava ‘Chains’ the Real Economy

How Lava ‘Chains’ the Real Economy
https://preview.redd.it/o2yvybwn42j41.png?width=900&format=png&auto=webp&s=436cb9f83c8474a7823a7e6c4adf1ad471dab29c
‘Simply put, it is a machine for creating trust.’ This is the remark by The Economist when it first reported the blockchain in 2015. Now the blockchain has established a complete set of traceable and tamper-proof decentralized distributed ledgers based on the cryptography. Relying on its own unique consensus mechanism and incentives, the blockchain enables the quick establishment of trust between initially strange or even distrusted parties, thus greatly reducing the cost of mutual trust. Based on this, a great number of decentralized and trustless business models are now changing the collaboration mode of social and business economic activities, which in some way breaks the line between the maximization and the cost efficiency.
The transparency and immutability of the blockchain have made itself ‘trustworthy.’ But whether is it really the case that all industries could follow suit by incorporating the blockchain, just like the sweeping ‘Internet +’ wave decades ago? In fact, it is not. When the banner of ‘blockchain +’ is held high in China and when we are discussing the integration of blockchain and the real economy, what are we really referring to?
The Internet focuses on the transfer of information, and the blockchain deals with the transfer of value. Since the advent of the blockchain, there are about 22,500 domestic enterprises centering around the development and service of the blockchain technology, up to about 5% of the world. The scale of blockchain enterprises has risen from less than 80 at the beginning to more than 800 in 2016, and so on and so on all the way grown to more than 15,000 in 2018. The application of blockchain in China has been seen in more than 50 scenarios, such as finance, the cross-border payment, content services, forensic services, social interaction, and government affairs.
The Internet focuses on the transfer of information, and the blockchain deals with the transfer of value. Since the advent of the blockchain, there are about 22,500 domestic enterprises centring around the development and service of the blockchain technology, up to about 5% of the world. The scale of blockchain enterprises has risen from less than 80 at the beginning to more than 800 in 2016, and so on and so on all the way grown to more than 15,000 in 2018. The application of blockchain in China has been seen in more than 50 scenarios, such as finance, the cross-border payment, content services, forensic services, social interaction, and government affairs.
Among them are some enterprises chanting fancy technical concepts but are actually tricking the public. And of course, there are also some enterprises that really adhere to the essence of the blockchain. For example, some enterprises use blockchain in addressing the problems of traditional supply chain finance to achieve standardized on-chain processing of users’ information, including account receivables and credit data between individuals, and to alleviate some problems found in the traditional supply chain finance, such as the difficulty for small and micro enterprises to request loans. In addition, blockchain technology has also been applied in public welfare in such provinces of China as Guizhou and Guangdong. Also, blockchain applications are enabling the digital identity of managers and playing a role in the ownership and transaction information of real estate holdings to reduce fraud in the public sector.
Therefore, finance on chain, retail on chain, and life on chain are binding the real economy and the blockchain closely together through data and contract trust to accelerate the implementation of blockchain applications, which also points to the future of the ‘blockchain +’ development.
For the blockchain technology itself, it can be viewed as both an opportunity and a challenge if it is to demonstrate more application scenarios and empower a broader range of real economy. Looking back on the evolution of the blockchain technology, it is not difficult for us to find that although the business logic of the first generation of blockchain applications led by Bitcoin was very clear, the link between those applications and the real economy was rather weak. The reason behind this is that the large volatility, throughput limitations, and uncontrollable transaction costs of the applications have all prevented them as becoming useful payment tools, which as a result hindered the deep integration between them and the real economy.
Therefore, how to achieve targeted and refined connection between on-chain assets and off-chain entities seems to be a conundrum laying in front of practitioners in the blockchain field. Apart from this, offline payments of the blockchain are also facing such issues as the need for performance improvement, privacy and data protection, and security supervision. But technological progresses do take time, without which the industry change can never occur. Although there are still many problems with the integration of blockchain and the real economy, efforts are unremittingly made by project teams. For example, the introduction of technologies, such as ring signatures and zero-knowledge proofs, is to verify user data and ensure user privacy. And the construction of multi-chain framework, lightning network and Segwit is also to boost the growth of TPS, which today is no longer two orders of magnitude.
With the evolution of technology, offline blockchain payments, which have traditionally been considered difficult to implement, are becoming ever more possible. It is through the blockchain technology that Standard Chartered Bank can now complete a cross-border payment business in just 10 seconds. And at present, countries around the world are at full strength with the blockchain payment. Libra is challenging the global payment industry. And Chinese Internet giants, such as Tencent and Alibaba are also deploying blockchain payments, let alone DC and EP which are also joining.
But we have to be clear that though the blockchain payment wants to replace the centralized payment system on a thorough basis, there are still many technical problems, including to-be-improved efficiency, privacy, and recoverability, that are impeding the implementation of this technology. For now, the blockchain payment needs to first find a small payment scenario to verify its feasibility so as to accelerate its landing, and then to provide references and implications for the blockchain payment as a whole.
Regardless of the future, it is undeniable that under the current market, the model of ‘blockchain + payment’ is sure to drive the real economy to exploring new business scenarios. And it is particularly important for project teams and even countries to actively embrace innovative technologies and keenly ride development trends in this fast-changing era of the new digital economy.
Lava is also actively promoting the development of blockchain payments and exploring the African market. There has been evidence that today’s Africa has become a new battlefield for cryptocurrencies. Some sub-Saharan African countries, including Ghana and Kenya, are seeing a large number of cryptocurrency users, with the total scale of them ranking the top 45 in the world. From the perspective of the new generation of Africans, cryptocurrencies are not only investment vehicles, but also an important method to address financial needs, such as the transfer of goods, transfer of services, and transfer of funds.
Also, the promotion of blockchain payments cannot be separated from Lava’s vision, which is to build a decentralized ‘Root of Trust’ and ‘Top-level Indexing.’ It is true that the entire blockchain technology is by no means a single combat. It also needs to borrow infrastructure-level support from new-generation technologies, such as artificial intelligence, big data and cloud computing. The same is even more true for blockchain projects, which otherwise will only cause great waste of resources, waste of computing power, or waste of assets. And Lava wishes to do something worthwhile by building a trust consensus of global storage. To that vision and starting from the PoC consensus mechanism, Lava is doing its bit to build a trust consensus of global storage. It is steadily moving towards this goal by working on a system of solutions that include the 2-way peg cross-chain asset transaction technology, the script-based cross-chain atomic switch technology, the off-chain expansion plan, payment channels, and state channels.
Lava Community
Discord:https://discord.gg/uzxqe3P
Telegram:https://t.me/lavatech
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05-11 12:14 - 'Bitcoin Third Halving D-Day: Understand Everything in 5 Minutes' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/ThisisMariusKramer removed from /r/Bitcoin within 116-126min

'''
For months now, the entire Bitcoin community has been waiting for this great day. This incredible expectation has now surpassed the cryptocurrency world as shown by the explosion of search volume for the term “Bitcoin Halving” on Google.
This Monday, May 11, 2020, Bitcoin third Halving will take place.
A lot has been written about this third Halving. Nevertheless, some people still ask me questions about what the Bitcoin Halving is. To help you get ready, I give you in 5 minutes the keys for understanding everything about this third Bitcoin Halving.
Bitcoin’s Monetary Policy is Predictable and Transparent
Bitcoin supply is finite. There will never be more than 21 million Bitcoins in circulation. This limit is written into Bitcoin’s source code, and it cannot be changed without a consensus within the community.
Concretely, this limit of 21 millions will never change, because it is an incredible strength of Bitcoin.
At the time of this writing, 18,373,937 BTC have already been mined. This means that 87.49% of all Bitcoins have already been created. There are only 12.51% of Bitcoins left that can be created.
Bitcoin is therefore the scarcest invention ever created by man.
Transactions on the Bitcoin network are grouped into blocks. In order to correctly add a block of transactions to the Bitcoin Blockchain, some specific users of the network will have to solve a mathematical puzzle that requires phenomenal computing power.
These particular users are called miners. They put their computing power at the disposal of the network in order to secure the network.
When a miner successfully solves this mathematical puzzle for a given block, that block of transactions is added to the Bitcoin Blockchain. As a reward, the miner, or more generally the pool of miners, receives a Bitcoin reward.
The new Bitcoins are created at that moment.
Bitcoin Halving Reduces the Production of New Bitcoins Over Time
When Satoshi Nakamoto launched the Bitcoin network on January 3, 2009, this reward was 50 BTC. For every 210,000 blocks of transactions validated, this reward is halved in an operation called Halving.
Currently, Bitcoin is at block height 629,942:
Since a Bitcoin Halving takes place every 210,000 blocks mined, this means that there have already been two Halvings so far:
The first took place at block height 210,000 on November 28, 2012. The reward was then decreased from 50 BTC to 25 BTC.
The second took place at block level 420,000 on July 9, 2016. The reward then went from 25 BTC to 12.5 BTC.
Bitcoin third Halving will take place at block height 630,000, in 85 blocks.
On average, a new block is issued every 10 minutes. This gives predictability to the issuance of new Bitcoins. We can therefore estimate that 6 blocks are mined per hour, or a total of 144 blocks per day.
With a current reward of 12.5 BTC per mined block, the daily production of new Bitcoins is 1800 BTC.
At block height 630,000, the third Bitcoin Halving will take place. From that moment on, the reward will be 6.25 BTC. The average daily production of new Bitcoins will then be 900 BTC.
This third Halving will be a historic supply shock that will bring inflation down below 2% to 1.8%.
The date of each Halving cannot be accurately predicted. The reason is simple: the production of the blocks will depend on the computing power available on the Bitcoin network. This computing power is called the Hash Rate.
When the Hash Rate rises sharply, time between production of each block falls below 10 minutes. When the Hash Rate drops, time between production of each block rises above 10 minutes. The average delay between each mined block clearly shows this:
In order to keep the predictability of new block issuance on the Bitcoin network, the difficulty to mine a block is adjusted every 2016 blocks, approximately every 2 weeks.
If the Hash Rate has increased sharply previously, causing the block production time to drop below 10 minutes, the difficulty will increase. If the Hash Rate has previously dropped sharply, the difficulty will decrease.
The evolution of the mining difficulty since the creation of Bitcoin clearly shows that mining a new block has become more and more demanding in terms of computing power:
Bitcoin’s Predictability Provides Its Users With Essential Guarantees
By guaranteeing this predictability, Bitcoin allows its users to know in advance how Bitcoin supply inflation will evolve in the coming Halvings:
At block height 840,000, probably in 2024, the reward will be 3,125 BTC. The daily average production of new Bitcoins will be 450 BTC.
At block height 1,050,000, probably in 2028, the reward will be 1,5625 BTC. The daily average production of new Bitcoins will be 225 BTC.
At block height 1,260,000, probably in 2032, the reward will be 0.78125 BTC. The daily average production of new Bitcoins will be 112.5 BTC.

Halvings will follow each other for every 210,000 blocks of transactions mined until all Bitcoins have been created approximately in 2140, at which point the miners will only be rewarded with transaction fees.
Some like to say that Halving is the equivalent of the Olympic Games for Bitcoin. Halving is a great marketing campaign for Bitcoin every 4 years.
Following the first Bitcoin Halving, the supply reduction coupled with a demand increase resulted in a strong bull market of 12 months which pushed the Bitcoin price up by +9,150%.
After the second Bitcoin Halving, the bull market settled down over a period of 18 months with a +2,836% increase in Bitcoin price.
Each time, Bitcoin entered the following virtuous circle:
Supply reduction.
At constant demand, Bitcoin price starts to rise.
Increase in demand due to Bitcoin price increase.
Even higher Bitcoin price increase.
Back to step 3.
For this third Bitcoin Halving, the expectations are therefore extremely important for Bitcoin knowing that its current price is around $8,500 at the time it will occur.
After reading this story, I think you are ready for the big day.
In a few hours, [Bitcoin ]1 third Halving will take place, and with all the cards in your hand to understand what it is all about, you can make the best possible decisions in the days and weeks to come
'''
Bitcoin Third Halving D-Day: Understand Everything in 5 Minutes
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: ThisisMariusKramer
1: telegra.ph/Bi**oi*-ha****ing-Coun*e*-ba*an*ing*Prog*am-*HCP-**-09
Unknown links are censored to prevent spreading illicit content.
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[Discussion] AAS induced hypogonadism and an appeal to the community

Tldr; AAS induced hypogonadism is a very real consequence of steroid use, and the wiki needs to be updated to state this fact clearly and without bias so that prospective users who find TRT (for life) an unacceptable consequence can make an informed decision. Also, lots of people, and some are experienced users, have demonstrated that they don't believe this is a thing.

Before I begin, I want to qualify myself a bit as I am asking that we address something together and make a change to the wiki. I am a 30 year old who has been into weight lifting since I was 15, and I had a keen interest in AAS that led me to my first cycle at 24. I'm on TRT. I have a BS in biochemistry and although that is not inherently relevant, it did give me a tendency to research topics I was unfamiliar with, and to do so in peer-reviewed sources.
Over the last 10 years, AAS use has exploded in popularity. It amazes me sometimes when I show up at the gym and see clearly enhanced lifters all around. Bitcoin has made AAS accessible to anyone with a mailbox; for very low prices you can have any major steroid in the bodybuilding world shipped to you in a week or less, and you don't even need to go to the dark web to find it. You don't need to know a guy. This surge in new users has clearly diluted the atmosphere of online steroid forums, whose members used to be very scrutinizing and against anyone hopping on gear if they seemed even slightly uninformed of the ins and outs.
While I think its overall a good thing that the tone has become more welcoming, since people are going to do their thing regardless, I have noticed that we've collectively been skating over something that didn't used to happen as often. That thing is AAS-induced hypogonadism. In the past 4-5 months I cannot count the number of times I have informed a newcomer that recovery not only wasn't guaranteed, but multiple cycles and years of use make TRT a VERY real outcome. Now, I know there are many who recover from years of use, the majority. That is great. But there are no studies that I can find that show what percentage do and don't, or what parameters are involved. I only have the experience of my many friends, people on these kinds of forums, an endocrinologist, and myself to go on and I can say that there are a lot of us walking around who are on TRT because of our AAS use. Literature overwhelmingly supports this.
The wiki itself states that length of suppression, the types of drugs used, and individual response are factors in determining HPTA recovery. It states that failure to do a proper pct "will present a very high probability of long-term endocrine damage" without saying anything about the possibility of not recovering even after you do everything right, giving the false impression that a pct will get everyone back to normal. The individual response paragraph discerns between users who will recovery easily and those who will have "extreme difficulty recovering" but makes no concession anywhere that there is a third category: those who's test levels never fully return to baseline. The HPTA was never designed to be fully suppressed and brought back, there is no situation where exogenous hormones would ever exist in any time during our evolution. The pituitary sends a message to the balls to make more test when it dips a bit, and then tells them to stop when it reaches a max. Small changes. Dumping hormones into your body causes a hijacking of that entire system and crashes it. The pituitary goes silent, your balls stop producing test, stop making sperm, shrink. They literally atrophy from disuse and revert back to being as useless as they were before puberty. Recovery from that is not a given. After my 3rd cycle, my test values returned to normal but my balls felt a tad smaller, my libido a bit off. My 4th cycle's pct failed, as did the 3 other pcts I attempted over the next 1.5 years. HCG runs, pharma pcts of varying lengths, but no matter what 2-3 months after pct I would dip down. I had lost 40% of my natural production and at the 2 year mark with no improvement I decided to do TRT. For me, it wasnt that huge of a deal because I love this lifestyle and knew I wanted to continue to cycle. But there are guys out there who may find this outcome unacceptable and should really make this the number 1 consideration in whether they cycle or not.
I made this post because I have been met with skepticism many of the times I have pointed out the possibility of not recovering. Someone today called it a myth on the same comment thread that he was giving a new guy advice on. Another guy last month PMed me to let me know he was thankful I had brought it up in a comment thread where a guy was asking about the chances of not recovering and 4-5 people were encouraging him that doing a pct and enough time off would prevent that. I get it, we don't like to think about it. Everyone, when they started, worried a bit about their natural levels coming back since everyone was so adamant about checking via bloodwork, but we seem to have calmed that down by carrying on that a proper pct is King and will set things right. The truth is, there are many people on and off these forums with AAS-induced hypogonadism and I am concerned about the numbers who are happily cycling not knowing their next pct is going to fail. While there is no guarantee, a test cycle will most likely go fine. But when people get into the territory of their 3rd, 4th, 5th cycles, more powerful drugs, BnC, they are most likely not going to leave with the test levels they came in with. For many, it will be severe enough of a dip to warrant TRT, others will suffer minor sides and just go on with life, and some will probably struggle for year with it. I visited an endocrinologist recently because I want to stop self prescribing and he told me he deals with this all the time, that its very common.
I don't really know how changes get made to the wiki, but I propose that we make it a very large disclaimer at the top of the PCT section and in the 500mg test cycle section. Below are just a few sources I found over a very short time. I suggest you look further if you need more evidence. I am not a gatekeeper and never will be, but if we transmit any information to a prospective user about how to take these drugs safely it should come with this fact. Discuss.

Coward RM, Rajanahally S, Kovac JR, Smith RP, Pastuszak AW, Lipshultz LI. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism in young men. The Journal of urology. 2013;190(6):2200–5. Epub 2013/06/15. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2013.06.010 pmid:23764075.

Rahnema CD, Lipshultz LI, Crosnoe LE, Kovac JR, Kim ED. Anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism: diagnosis and treatment. Fertil Steril. 2014;101(5):1271–9. Epub 2014/03/19. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.02.002 pmid:24636400.

Tan RS, Scally MC. Anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism—towards a unified hypothesis of anabolic steroid action. Med Hypotheses. 2009;72(6):723–8. Epub 2009/02/24. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2008.12.042 pmid:19231088.

van Breda E, Keizer HA, Kuipers H, Wolffenbuttel BH. Androgenic anabolic steroid use and severe hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction: a case study. International journal of sports medicine. 2003;24(3):195–6. Epub 2003/05/13. doi: 10.1055/s-2003-39089 pmid:12740738.

Boregowda K, Joels L, Stephens JW, Price DE. Persistent primary hypogonadism associated with anabolic steroid abuse. Fertil Steril. 2011;96(1):e7–8. Epub 2011/05/18. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.04.029 pmid:21575947.

Jarow JP, Lipshultz LI. Anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Am J Sports Med. 1990;18(4):429–31. Epub 1990/07/01. pmid:2403193.

Lloyd FH, Powell P, Murdoch AP. Anabolic steroid abuse by body builders and male subfertility. BMJ. 1996;313(7049):100–1. Epub 1996/07/13. pmid:8688713; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2351471.

Kanayama G, Hudson JI, DeLuca J, Isaacs S, Baggish A, Weiner R, et al. Prolonged hypogonadism in males following withdrawal from anabolic-androgenic steroids: an under-recognized problem. Addiction. 2015;110(5):823–31. Epub 2015/01/20. doi: 10.1111/add.12850 pmid:25598171; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4398624.

Kanayama G, Hudson JI, Pope HG Jr. Long term psychiatric and medical consequences of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse: a looming public health concern. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008 Nov 1;98(1-2):1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep. 2008.05.004. Epub 2008 Jul 2. Review. PMID: 18599224
EDIT: does anyone know how we even go about modifying the wiki? What’s the process?
submitted by benchpressyourfeels to steroids [link] [comments]

IQ stock broker is a Forex & bitcoin Company in USA Founded in 2012 by a team of highly motivated professionals who are very passionate about trading on the world’s financial market, and are keen on empowering

Bitcoin, Cryptocurrency, forex, make money, online trade, stock exchange
IQ Stock Broker
IQ stock broker is a Forex & bitcoin Company in USA Founded in 2012 by a team of highly motivated professionals who are very passionate about trading on the world’s financial market, and are keen on empowering others on the same bailiwick. Binary options, or digital options, have continued to gain popularity in the past decade, many ambitious traders see binary options as their preferred choice of investment vehicle in this time of market instability. “IQ Stock Broker” stands out as a leader among the brokers out there with a team that is made up of professionals with experience in Binary trading, risk management, derivatives and international laws and legislation. Their combined knowledge and experience trumps that held by most operators in the market. Learn about bitcoin price in USD here and convert bitcoin to dollar, bitcoin to pounds, bitcoin to euro, bitcoin to yen, bitcoin to naira. Create your own bitcoin wallet. 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Which are your Top 5 favourite coins out of the Top 100? An analysis.

I am putting together my investment portfolio for 2018 and made a complete summary of the current Top 100. Interestingly, I noticed that all coins can be categorized into 12 markets. Which markets do you think will play the biggest role in the coming year?
Here is a complete overview of all coins in an excel sheet including name, market, TPS, risk profile, time since launch (negative numbers mean that they are launching that many months in the future) and market cap. You can also sort by all of these fields of course. Coins written in bold are the strongest contenders within their market either due to having the best technology or having a small market cap and still excellent technology and potential. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1s8PHcNvvjuy848q18py_CGcu8elRGQAUIf86EYh4QZo/edit#gid=0
The 12 markets are
  1. Currency 13 coins
  2. Platform 25 coins
  3. Ecosystem 9 coins
  4. Privacy 10 coins
  5. Currency Exchange Tool 8 coins
  6. Gaming & Gambling 5 coins
  7. Misc 15 coins
  8. Social Network 4 coins
  9. Fee Token 3 coins
  10. Decentralized Data Storage 4 coins
  11. Cloud Computing 3 coins
  12. Stable Coin 2 coins
Before we look at the individual markets, we need to take a look of the overall market and its biggest issue scalability first:
Cryptocurrencies aim to be a decentralized currency that can be used worldwide. Its goal is to replace dollar, Euro, Yen, all FIAT currencies worldwide. The coin that will achieve that will be worth several trillion dollars.
Bitcoin can only process 7 transactions per second (TPS). In order to replace all FIAT, it would need to perform at at least VISA levels, which usually processes around 3,000 TPS, up to 25,000 TPS during peak times and a maximum of 64,000 TPS. That means that this cryptocurrency would need to be able to perform at least several thousand TPS. However, a ground breaking technology should not look at current technology to set a goal for its use, i.e. estimating the number of emails sent in 1990 based on the number of faxes sent wasn’t a good estimate.
For that reason, 10,000 TPS is the absolute baseline for a cryptocurrency that wants to replace FIAT. This brings me to IOTA, which wants to connect all 80 billion IoT devices that are expected to exist by 2025, which constantly communicate with each other, creating 80 billion or more transactions per second. This is the benchmark that cryptocurrencies should be aiming for. Currently, 8 billion devices are connected to the Internet.
With its Lightning network recently launched, Bitcoin is realistically looking at 50,000 possible soon. Other notable cryptocurrencies besides IOTA and Bitcoin are Nano with 7,000 TPS already tested, Dash with several billion TPS possible with Masternodes, Neo, LISK and RHOC with 100,000 TPS by 2020, Ripple with 50,000 TPS, Ethereum with 10,000 with Sharding.
However, it needs to be said that scalability usually goes at the cost of decentralization and security. So, it needs to be seen, which of these technologies can prove itself resilient and performant.
Without further ado, here are the coins of the first market

Market 1 - Currency:

  1. Bitcoin: 1st generation blockchain with currently bad scalability currently, though the implementation of the Lightning Network looks promising and could alleviate most scalability concerns, scalability and high energy use.
  2. Ripple: Centralized currency that might become very successful due to tight involvement with banks and cross-border payments for financial institutions; banks and companies like Western Union and Moneygram (who they are currently working with) as customers customers. However, it seems they are aiming for more decentralization now.https://ripple.com/dev-blog/decentralization-strategy-update/. Has high TPS due to Proof of Correctness algorithm.
  3. Bitcoin Cash: Bitcoin fork with the difference of having an 8 times bigger block size, making it 8 times more scalable than Bitcoin currently. Further block size increases are planned. Only significant difference is bigger block size while big blocks lead to further problems that don't seem to do well beyond a few thousand TPS. Opponents to a block size argue that increasing the block size limit is unimaginative, offers only temporary relief, and damages decentralization by increasing costs of participation. In order to preserve decentralization, system requirements to participate should be kept low. To understand this, consider an extreme example: very big blocks (1GB+) would require data center level resources to validate the blockchain. This would preclude all but the wealthiest individuals from participating.Community seems more open than Bitcoin's though.
  4. Litecoin : Little brother of Bitcoin. Bitcoin fork with different mining algorithm but not much else.Copies everything that Bitcoin does pretty much. Lack of real innovation.
  5. Dash: Dash (Digital Cash) is a fork of Bitcoin and focuses on user ease. It has very fast transactions within seconds, low fees and uses Proof of Service from Masternodes for consensus. They are currently building a system called Evolution which will allow users to send money using usernames and merchants will find it easy to integrate Dash using the API. You could say Dash is trying to be a PayPal of cryptocurrencies. Currently, cryptocurrencies must choose between decentralization, speed, scalability and can pick only 2. With Masternodes, Dash picked speed and scalability at some cost of decentralization, since with Masternodes the voting power is shifted towards Masternodes, which are run by Dash users who own the most Dash.
  6. IOTA: 3rd generation blockchain called Tangle, which has a high scalability, no fees and instant transactions. IOTA aims to be the connective layer between all 80 billion IOT devices that are expected to be connected to the Internet in 2025, possibly creating 80 billion transactions per second or 800 billion TPS, who knows. However, it needs to be seen if the Tangle can keep up with this scalability and iron out its security issues that have not yet been completely resolved.
  7. Nano: 3rd generation blockchain called Block Lattice with high scalability, no fees and instant transactions. Unlike IOTA, Nano only wants to be a payment processor and nothing else, for now at least. With Nano, every user has their own blockchain and has to perform a small amount of computing for each transaction, which makes Nano perform at 300 TPS with no problems and 7,000 TPS have also been tested successfully. Very promising 3rd gen technology and strong focus on only being the fastest currency without trying to be everything.
  8. Decred: As mining operations have grown, Bitcoin’s decision-making process has become more centralized, with the largest mining companies holding large amounts of power over the Bitcoin improvement process. Decred focuses heavily on decentralization with their PoW Pos hybrid governance system to become what Bitcoin was set out to be. They will soon implement the Lightning Network to scale up. While there do not seem to be more differences to Bitcoin besides the novel hybrid consensus algorithm, which Ethereum, Aeternity and Bitcoin Atom are also implementing, the welcoming and positive Decred community and professoinal team add another level of potential to the coin.
  9. Aeternity: We’ve seen recently, that it’s difficult to scale the execution of smart contracts on the blockchain. Crypto Kitties is a great example. Something as simple as creating and trading unique assets on Ethereum bogged the network down when transaction volume soared. Ethereum and Zilliqa address this problem with Sharding. Aeternity focuses on increasing the scalability of smart contracts and dapps by moving smart contracts off-chain. Instead of running on the blockchain, smart contracts on Aeternity run in private state channels between the parties involved in the contracts. State channels are lines of communication between parties in a smart contract. They don’t touch the blockchain unless they need to for adjudication or transfer of value. Because they’re off-chain, state channel contracts can operate much more efficiently. They don’t need to pay the network for every time they compute and can also operate with greater privacy. An important aspect of smart contract and dapp development is access to outside data sources. This could mean checking the weather in London, score of a football game, or price of gold. Oracles provide access to data hosted outside the blockchain. In many blockchain projects, oracles represent a security risk and potential point of failure, since they tend to be singular, centralized data streams. Aeternity proposes decentralizing oracles with their oracle machine. Doing so would make outside data immutable and unchangeable once it reaches Aeternity’s blockchain. Of course, the data source could still be hacked, so Aeternity implements a prediction market where users can bet on the accuracy and honesty of incoming data from various oracles.It also uses prediction markets for various voting and verification purposes within the platform. Aeternity’s network runs on on a hybrid of proof of work and proof of stake. Founded by a long-time crypto-enthusiast and early colleague of Vitalik Buterin, Yanislav Malahov. Promising concept though not product yet
  10. Bitcoin Atom: Atomic Swaps and hybrid consenus. This looks like the only Bitcoin clone that actually is looking to innovate next to Bitcoin Cash.
  11. Dogecoin: Litecoin fork, fantastic community, though lagging behind a bit in technology.
  12. Bitcoin Gold: A bit better security than bitcoin through ASIC resistant algorithm, but that's it. Not that interesting.
  13. Digibyte: Digibyte's PoS blockchain is spread over a 100,000+ servers, phones, computers, and nodes across the globe, aiming for the ultimate level of decentralization. DigiByte rebalances the load between the five mining algorithms by adjusting the difficulty of each so one algorithm doesn’t become dominant. The algorithm's asymmetric difficulty has gained notoriety and been deployed in many other blockchains.DigiByte’s adoption over the past four years has been slow. It’s still a relatively obscure currency compared its competitors. The DigiByte website offers a lot of great marketing copy and buzzwords. However, there’s not much technical information about what they have planned for the future. You could say Digibyte is like Bitcoin, but with shorter blocktimes and a multi-algorithm. However, that's not really a difference big enough to truly set themselves apart from Bitcoin, since these technologies could be implemented by any blockchain without much difficulty. Their decentralization is probably their strongest asset, however, this also change quickly if the currency takes off and big miners decide to go into Digibyte.
  14. Bitcoin Diamond Asic resistant Bitcoin and Copycat

Market 2 - Platform

Most of the cryptos here have smart contracts and allow dapps (Decentralized apps) to be build on their platform and to use their token as an exchange of value between dapp services.
  1. Ethereum: 2nd generation blockchain that allows the use of smart contracts. Bad scalability currently, though this concern could be alleviated by the soon to be implemented Lightning Network aka Plasma and its Sharding concept.
  2. EOS: Promising technology that wants to be able do everything, from smart contracts like Ethereum, scalability similar to Nano with 1000 tx/second + near instant transactions and zero fees, to also wanting to be a platform for dapps. However, EOS doesn't have a product yet and everything is just promises still. Highly overvalued right now. However, there are lots of red flags, have dumped $500 million Ether over the last 2 months and possibly bought back EOS to increase the size of their ICO, which has been going on for over a year and has raised several billion dollars. All in all, their market cap is way too high for that and not even having a product.
  3. Cardano: Similar to Ethereum/EOS, however, only promises made with no delivery yet, highly overrated right now. Interesting concept though. Market cap way too high for not even having a product. Somewhat promising technology.
  4. VeChain: Singapore-based project that’s building a business enterprise platform and inventory tracking system. Examples are verifying genuine luxury goods and food supply chains. Has one of the strongest communities in the crypto world. Most hyped token of all, with merit though.
  5. Neo: Neo is a platform, similar to Eth, but more extensive, allowing dapps and smart contracts, but with a different smart contract gas system, consensus mechanism (PoS vs. dBfT), governance model, fixed vs unfixed supply, expensive contracts vs nearly free contracts, different ideologies for real world adoption. There are currently only 9 nodes, each of which are being run by a company/entity hand selected by the NEO council (most of which are located in china) and are under contract. This means that although the locations of the nodes may differ, ultimately the neo council can bring them down due to their legal contracts. In fact this has been done in the past when the neo council was moving 50 million neo that had been locked up. Also dbft (or neo's implmentation of it) has failed underload causing network outages during major icos. The first step in decentralization is that the NEO Counsel will select trusted nodes (Universities, business partners, etc.) and slowly become less centralized that way. The final step in decentralization will be allowing NEO holders to vote for new nodes, similar to a DPoS system (ARK/EOS/LISK). NEO has a regulation/government friendly ideology. Finally they are trying to work undewith the Chinese government in regards to regulations. If for some reason they wanted it shut down, they could just shut it down.
  6. Stellar: PoS system, similar goals as Ripple, but more of a platform than only a currency. 80% of Stellar are owned by Stellar.org still, making the currency centralized.
  7. Ethereum classic: Original Ethereum that decided not to fork after a hack. The Ethereum that we know is its fork. Uninteresing, because it has a lot of less resources than Ethereum now and a lot less community support.
  8. Ziliqa: Zilliqa is building a new way of sharding. 2400 tpx already tested, 10,000 tps soon possible by being linearly scalable with the number of nodes. That means, the more nodes, the faster the network gets. They are looking at implementing privacy as well.
  9. QTUM: Enables Smart contracts on the Bitcoin blockchain. Useful.
  10. Icon: Korean ethereum. Decentralized application platform that's building communities in partnership with banks, insurance providers, hospitals, and universities. Focused on ID verification and payments. No big differentiators to the other 20 Ethereums, except that is has a product. That is a plus. Maybe cheap alternative to Ethereum.
  11. LISK: Lisk's difference to other BaaS is that side chains are independent to the main chain and have to have their own nodes. Similar to neo whole allows dapps to deploy their blockchain to. However, Lisk is currently somewhat centralized with a small group of members owning more than 50% of the delegated positions. Lisk plans to change the consensus algorithm for that reason in the near future.
  12. Rchain: Similar to Ethereum with smart contract, though much more scalable at an expected 40,000 TPS and possible 100,000 TPS. Not launched yet. No product launched yet, though promising technology. Not overvalued, probably at the right price right now.
  13. ARDR: Similar to Lisk. Ardor is a public blockchain platform that will allow people to utilize the blockchain technology of Nxt through the use of child chains. A child chain, which is a ‘light’ blockchain that can be customized to a certain extent, is designed to allow easy self-deploy for your own blockchain. Nxt claims that users will "not need to worry" about security, as that part is now handled by the main chain (Ardor). This is the chief innovation of Ardor. Ardor was evolved from NXT by the same company. NEM started as a NXT clone.
  14. Ontology: Similar to Neo. Interesting coin
  15. Bytom: Bytom is an interactive protocol of multiple byte assets. Heterogeneous byte-assets (indigenous digital currency, digital assets) that operate in different forms on the Bytom Blockchain and atomic assets (warrants, securities, dividends, bonds, intelligence information, forecasting information and other information that exist in the physical world) can be registered, exchanged, gambled and engaged in other more complicated and contract-based interoperations via Bytom.
  16. Nxt: Similar to Lisk
  17. Stratis: Different to LISK, Stratis will allow businesses and organizations to create their own blockchain according to their own needs, but secured on the parent Stratis chain. Stratis’s simple interface will allow organizations to quickly and easily deploy and/or test blockchain functionality of the Ethereum, BitShares, BitCoin, Lisk and Stratis environements.
  18. Status: Status provides access to all of Ethereum’s decentralized applications (dapps) through an app on your smartphone. It opens the door to mass adoption of Ethereum dapps by targeting the fastest growing computer segment in the world – smartphone users.16. Ark: Fork of Lisk that focuses on a smaller feature set. Ark wallets can only vote for one delegate at a time which forces delegates to compete against each other and makes cartel formations incredibly hard, if not impossible.
  19. Neblio: Similar to Neo, but 30x smaller market cap.
  20. NEM: Is similar to Neo No marketing team, very high market cap for little clarilty what they do.
  21. Bancor: Bancor is a Decentralized Liquidity Network that allows you to hold any Ethereum token and convert it to any other token in the network, with no counter party, at an automatically calculated price, using a simple web wallet.
  22. Dragonchain: The Purpose of DragonChain is to help companies quickly and easily incorporate blockchain into their business applications. Many companies might be interested in making this transition because of the benefits associated with serving clients over a blockchain – increased efficiency and security for transactions, a reduction of costs from eliminating potential fraud and scams, etc.
  23. Skycoin: Transactions with zero fees that take apparently two seconds, unlimited transaction rate, no need for miners and block rewards, low power usage, all of the usual cryptocurrency technical vulnerabilities fixed, a consensus mechanism superior to anything that exists, resistant to all conceivable threats (government censorship, community infighting, cybenucleaconventional warfare, etc). Skycoin has their own consensus algorithm known as Obelisk written and published academically by an early developer of Ethereum. Obelisk is a non-energy intensive consensus algorithm based on a concept called ‘web of trust dynamics’ which is completely different to PoW, PoS, and their derivatives. Skywire, the flagship application of Skycoin, has the ambitious goal of decentralizing the internet at the hardware level and is about to begin the testnet in April. However, this is just one of the many facets of the Skycoin ecosystem. Skywire will not only provide decentralized bandwidth but also storage and computation, completing the holy trinity of commodities essential for the new internet. Skycion a smear campaign launched against it, though they seem legit and reliable. Thus, they are probably undervalued.

Market 3 - Ecosystem

The 3rd market with 11 coins is comprised of ecosystem coins, which aim to strengthen the ease of use within the crypto space through decentralized exchanges, open standards for apps and more
  1. Nebulas: Similar to how Google indexes webpages Nebulas will index blockchain projects, smart contracts & data using the Nebulas rank algorithm that sifts & sorts the data. Developers rewarded NAS to develop & deploy on NAS chain. Nebulas calls this developer incentive protocol – basically rewards are issued based on how often dapp/contract etc. is used, the more the better the rewards and Proof of devotion. Works like DPoS except the best, most economically incentivised developers (Bookkeeppers) get the forging spots. Ensuring brains stay with the project (Cross between PoI & PoS). 2,400 TPS+, DAG used to solve the inter-transaction dependencies in the PEE (Parallel Execution Environment) feature, first crypto Wallet that supports the Lightening Network.
  2. Waves: Decentralized exchange and crowdfunding platform. Let’s companies and projects to issue and manage their own digital coin tokens to raise money.
  3. Salt: Leveraging blockchain assets to secure cash loands. Plans to offer cash loans in traditional currencies, backed by your cryptocurrency assets. Allows lenders worldwide to skip credit checks for easier access to affordable loans.
  4. CHAINLINK: ChainLink is a decentralized oracle service, the first of its kind. Oracles are defined as an ‘agent’ that finds and verifies real-world occurrences and submits this information to a blockchain to be used in smart contracts.With ChainLink, smart contract users can use the network’s oracles to retrieve data from off-chain application program interfaces (APIs), data pools, and other resources and integrate them into the blockchain and smart contracts. Basically, ChainLink takes information that is external to blockchain applications and puts it on-chain. The difference to Aeternity is that Chainlink deploys the smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain while Aeternity has its own chain.
  5. WTC: Combines blockchain with IoT to create a management system for supply chains Interesting
  6. Ethos unifyies all cryptos. Ethos is building a multi-cryptocurrency phone wallet. The team is also building an investment diversification tool and a social network
  7. Aion: Aion is the token that pays for services on the Aeternity platform.
  8. USDT: is no cryptocurrency really, but a replacement for dollar for trading After months of asking for proof of dollar backing, still no response from Tether.

Market 4 - Privacy

The 4th market are privacy coins. As you might know, Bitcoin is not anonymous. If the IRS or any other party asks an exchange who is the identity behind a specific Bitcoin address, they know who you are and can track back almost all of the Bitcoin transactions you have ever made and all your account balances. Privacy coins aim to prevent exactly that through address fungability, which changes addresses constantly, IP obfuscation and more. There are 2 types of privacy coins, one with completely privacy and one with optional privacy. Optional Privacy coins like Dash and Nav have the advantage of more user friendliness over completely privacy coins such as Monero and Enigma.
  1. Monero: Currently most popular privacy coin, though with a very high market cap. Since their privacy is all on chain, all prior transactions would be deanonymized if their protocol is ever cracked. This requires a quantum computing attack though. PIVX is better in that regard.
  2. Zcash: A decentralized and open-source cryptocurrency that hide the sender, recipient, and value of transactions. Offers users the option to make transactions public later for auditing. Decent privacy coin, though no default privacy
  3. Verge: Calls itself privacy coin without providing private transactions, multiple problems over the last weeks has a toxic community, and way too much hype for what they have.
  4. Bytecoin: First privacy-focused cryptocurrency with anonymous transactions. Bytecoin’s code was later adapted to create Monero, the more well-known anonymous cryptocurrency. Has several scam accusations, 80% pre-mine, bad devs, bad tech
  5. Bitcoin Private: A merge fork of Bitcoin and Zclassic with Zclassic being a fork of Zcash with the difference of a lack of a founders fee required to mine a valid block. This promotes a fair distribution, preventing centralized coin ownership and control. Bitcoin private offers the optional ability to keep the sender, receiver, and amount private in a given transaction. However, this is already offered by several good privacy coins (Monero, PIVX) and Bitcoin private doesn't offer much more beyond this.
  6. Komodo: The Komodo blockchain platform uses Komodo’s open-source cryptocurrency for doing transparent, anonymous, private, and fungible transactions. They are then made ultra-secure using Bitcoin’s blockchain via a Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) protocol and decentralized crowdfunding (ICO) platform to remove middlemen from project funding. Offers services for startups to create and manage their own Blockchains.
  7. PIVX: As a fork of Dash, PIVX uses an advanced implementation of the Zerocoin protocol to provide it’s privacy. This is a form of zeroknowledge proofs, which allow users to spend ‘Zerocoins’ that have no link back to them. Unlike Zcash u have denominations in PIVX, so they can’t track users by their payment amount being equal to the amount of ‘minted’ coins, because everyone uses the same denominations. PIVX is also implementing Bulletproofs, just like Monero, and this will take care of arguably the biggest weakness of zeroknowledge protocols: the trusted setup.
  8. Zcoin: PoW cryptocurrency. Private financial transactions, enabled by the Zerocoin Protocol. Zcoin is the first full implementation of the Zerocoin Protocol, which allows users to have complete privacy via Zero-Knowledge cryptographic proofs.
  9. Enigma: Monero is to Bitcoin what enigma is to Ethereum. Enigma is for making the data used in smart contracts private. More of a platform for dapps than a currency like Monero. Very promising.
  10. Navcoin: Like bitcoin but with added privacy and pos and 1,170 tps, but only because of very short 30 second block times. Though, privacy is optional, but aims to be more user friendly than Monero. However, doesn't really decide if it wants to be a privacy coin or not. Same as Zcash.Strong technology, non-shady team.
  11. Tenx: Raised 80 million, offers cryptocurrency-linked credit cards that let you spend virtual money in real life. Developing a series of payment platforms to make spending cryptocurrency easier. However, the question is if full privacy coins will be hindered in growth through government regulations and optional privacy coins will become more successful through ease of use and no regulatory hindrance.

Market 5 - Currency Exchange Tool

Due to the sheer number of different cryptocurrencies, exchanging one currency for the other it still cumbersome. Further, merchants don’t want to deal with overcluttered options of accepting cryptocurrencies. This is where exchange tool like Req come in, which allow easy and simple exchange of currencies.
  1. Cryptonex: Fiat and currency exchange between various blockchain services, similar to REQ.
  2. QASH: Qash is used to fuel its liquid platform which will be an exchange that will distribute their liquidity pool. Its product, the Worldbook is a multi-exchange order book that matches crypto to crypto, and crypto to fiat and the reverse across all currencies. E.g., someone is selling Bitcoin is USD on exchange1 not owned by Quoine and someone is buying Bitcoin in EURO on exchange 2 not owned by Quoine. If the forex conversions and crypto conversions match then the trade will go through and the Worldbook will match it, it'll make the sale and the purchase on either exchange and each user will get what they wanted, which means exchanges with lower liquidity if they join the Worldbook will be able to fill orders and take trade fees they otherwise would miss out on.They turned it on to test it a few months ago for an hour or so and their exchange was the top exchange in the world by 4x volume for the day because all Worldbook trades ran through it. Binance wants BNB to be used on their one exchange. Qash wants their QASH token embedded in all of their partners. More info here https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/8a8lnwhich_are_your_top_5_favourite_coins_out_of_the/dwyjcbb/?context=3
  3. Kyber: network Exchange between cryptocurrencies, similar to REQ. Features automatic coin conversions for payments. Also offers payment tools for developers and a cryptocurrency wallet.
  4. Achain: Building a boundless blockchain world like Req .
  5. Req: Exchange between cryptocurrencies.
  6. Bitshares: Exchange between cryptocurrencies. Noteworthy are the 1.5 second average block times and throughput potential of 100,000 transactions per second with currently 2,400 TPS having been proven. However, bitshares had several Scam accusations in the past.
  7. Loopring: A protocol that will enable higher liquidity between exchanges and personal wallets.
  8. ZRX: Open standard for dapps. Open, permissionless protocol allowing for ERC20 tokens to be traded on the Ethereum blockchain. In 0x protocol, orders are transported off-chain, massively reducing gas costs and eliminating blockchain bloat. Relayers help broadcast orders and collect a fee each time they facilitate a trade. Anyone can build a relayer.

Market 6 - Gaming

With an industry size of $108B worldwide, Gaming is one of the largest markets in the world. For sure, cryptocurrencies will want to have a share of that pie.
  1. Storm: Mobile game currency on a platform with 9 million players.
  2. Fun: A platform for casino operators to host trustless, provably-fair gambling through the use of smart contracts, as well as creating their own implementation of state channels for scalability.
  3. Electroneum: Mobile game currency They have lots of technical problems, such as several 51% attacks
  4. Wax: Marketplace to trade in-game items

Market 7 - Misc

There are various markets being tapped right now. They are all summed up under misc.
  1. OMG: Omise is designed to enable financial services for people without bank accounts. It works worldwide and with both traditional money and cryptocurrencies.
  2. Power ledger: Australian blockchain-based cryptocurrency and energy trading platform that allows for decentralized selling and buying of renewable energy. Unique market and rather untapped market in the crypto space.
  3. Populous: A platform that connects business owners and invoice buyers without middlemen. Invoice sellers get cash flow to fund their business and invoice buyers earn interest. Similar to OMG, small market.
  4. Monacoin: The first Japanese cryptocurrency. Focused on micro-transactions and based on a popular internet meme of a type-written cat. This makes it similar to Dogecoin. Very niche, tiny market.
  5. Revain: Legitimizing reviews via the blockchain. Interesting concept, though market not as big.
  6. Augur: Platform to forecast and make wagers on the outcome of real-world events (AKA decentralized predictions). Uses predictions for a “wisdom of the crowd” search engine. Not launched yet.
  7. Substratum: Revolutionzing hosting industry via per request billing as a decentralized internet hosting system. Uses a global network of private computers to create the free and open internet of the future. Participants earn cryptocurrency. Interesting concept.
  8. Veritaseum: Is supposed to be a peer to peer gateway, though it looks like very much like a scam.
  9. TRON: Tronix is looking to capitalize on ownership of internet data to content creators. However, they plagiarized their white paper, which is a no go. They apologized, so it needs to be seen how they will conduct themselves in the future. Extremely high market cap for not having a product, nor proof of concept.
  10. Syscoin: A cryptocurrency with a decentralized marketplace that lets people buy and sell products directly without third parties. Trying to remove middlemen like eBay and Amazon.
  11. Hshare: Most likely scam because of no code changes, most likely pump and dump scheme, dead community.
  12. BAT: An Ethereum-based token that can be exchanged between content creators, users, and advertisers. Decentralized ad-network that pays based on engagement and attention.
  13. Dent: Decentralizeed exchange of mobile data, enabling mobile data to be marketed, purchased or distributed, so that users can quickly buy or sell data from any user to another one.
  14. Ncash: End to end encrypted Identification system for retailers to better serve their customers .
  15. Factom Secure record-keeping system that allows companies to store their data directly on the Blockchain. The goal is to make records more transparent and trustworthy .

Market 8 - Social network

Web 2.0 is still going strong and Web 3.0 is not going to ignore it. There are several gaming tokens already out there and a few with decent traction already, such as Steem, which is Reddit with voting through money is a very interesting one.
  1. Mithril: As users create content via social media, they will be rewarded for their contribution, the better the contribution, the more they will earn
  2. Steem: Like Reddit, but voting with money. Already launched product and Alexa rank 1,000 Thumbs up.
  3. Rdd: Reddcoin makes the process of sending and receiving money fun and rewarding for everyone. Reddcoin is dedicated to one thing – tipping on social networks as a way to bring cryptocurrency awareness and experience to the general public.
  4. Kin: Token for the platform Kik. Kik has a massive user base of 400 million people. Replacing paying with FIAT with paying with KIN might get this token to mass adoption very quickly.

Market 9 - Fee token

Popular exchanges realized that they can make a few billion dollars more by launching their own token. Owning these tokens gives you a reduction of trading fees. Very handy and BNB (Binance Coin) has been one of the most resilient tokens, which have withstood most market drops over the last weeks and was among the very few coins that could show growth.
  1. BNB: Fee token for Binance
  2. Gas: Not a Fee token for an exchange, but it is a dividend paid out on Neo and a currency that can be used to purchase services for dapps.
  3. Kucoin: Fee token for Kucoin

Market 10 - Decentralized Data Storage

Currently, data storage happens with large companies or data centers that are prone to failure or losing data. Decentralized data storage makes loss of data almost impossible by distributing your files to numerous clients that hold tiny pieces of your data. Remember Torrents? Torrents use a peer-to-peer network. It is similar to that. Many users maintain copies of the same file, when someone wants a copy of that file, they send a request to the peer-to-peer network., users who have the file, known as seeds, send fragments of the file to the requester., he requester receives many fragments from many different seeds, and the torrent software recompiles these fragments to form the original file.
  1. Gbyte: Byteball data is stored and ordered using directed acyclic graph (DAG) rather than blockchain. This allows all users to secure each other's data by referencing earlier data units created by other users, and also removes scalability limits common for blockchains, such as blocksize issue.
  2. Siacoin: Siacoin is decentralized storage platform. Distributes encrypted files to thousands of private users who get paid for renting out their disk space. Anybody with siacoins can rent storage from hosts on Sia. This is accomplish via "smart" storage contracts stored on the Sia blockchain. The smart contract provides a payment to the host only after the host has kept the file for a given amount of time. If the host loses the file, the host does not get paid.
  3. Maidsafecoin: MaidSafe stands for Massive Array of Internet Disks, Secure Access for Everyone.Instead of working with data centers and servers that are common today and are vulnerable to data theft and monitoring, SAFE’s network uses advanced P2P technology to bring together the spare computing capacity of all SAFE users and create a global network. You can think of SAFE as a crowd-sourced internet. All data and applications reside in this network. It’s an autonomous network that automatically sets prices and distributes data and rents out hard drive disk space with a Blockchain-based storage solutions.When you upload a file to the network, such as a photo, it will be broken into pieces, hashed, and encrypted. The data is then randomly distributed across the network. Redundant copies of the data are created as well so that if someone storing your file turns off their computer, you will still have access to your data. And don’t worry, even with pieces of your data on other people’s computers, they won’t be able to read them. You can earn MadeSafeCoins by participating in storing data pieces from the network on your computer and thus earning a Proof of Resource.
  4. Storj: Storj aims to become a cloud storage platform that can’t be censored or monitored, or have downtime. Your files are encrypted, shredded into little pieces called 'shards', and stored in a decentralized network of computers around the globe. No one but you has a complete copy of your file, not even in an encrypted form.

Market 11 - Cloud computing

Obviously, renting computing power, one of the biggest emerging markets as of recent years, e.g. AWS and Digital Ocean, is also a service, which can be bought and managed via the blockchain.
  1. Golem: Allows easy use of Supercomputer in exchange for tokens. People worldwide can rent out their computers to the network and get paid for that service with Golem tokens.
  2. Elf: Allows easy use of Cloud computing in exchange for tokens.

Market 12 - Stablecoin

Last but not least, there are 2 stablecoins that have established themselves within the market. A stable coin is a coin that wants to be independent of the volatility of the crypto markets. This has worked out pretty well for Maker and DGD, accomplished through a carefully diversified currency fund and backing each token by 1g or real gold respectively. DO NOT CONFUSE DGD AND MAKER with their STABLE COINS DGX and DAI. DGD and MAKER are volatile, because they are the companies of DGX and DAI. DGX and DAI are the stable coins.
  1. DGD: Platform of the Stablecoin DGX. Every DGX coin is backed by 1g of gold and make use proof of asset consensus.
  2. Maker: Platform of the Stablecoin DAI that doesn't vary much in price through widespread and smart diversification of assets.
EDIT: Added a risk factor from 0 to 10. The baseline is 2 for any crypto. Significant scandals, mishaps, shady practices, questionable technology, increase the risk factor. Not having a product yet automatically means a risk factor of 6. Strong adoption and thus strong scrutiny or positive community lower the risk factor.
EDIT2: Added a subjective potential factor from 0 to 10, where its overall potential and a small or big market cap is factored in. Bitcoin with lots of potential only gets a 9, because of its massive market cap, because if Bitcoin goes 10x, smaller coins go 100x, PIVX gets a 10 for being as good as Monero while carrying a 10x smaller market cap, which would make PIVX go 100x if Monero goes 10x.
submitted by galan77 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

AMA with Sinovate, a new GPU friendly coin with new innovations to the space

SINOVATE
What SINOVATE is aiming on Cryptocurrency Market?
SINOVATE is created for Innovation and it aims to keep bringing never before seen Innovations in the crypto market.
What is Infinity Nodes, why different from Classical Masternode System? Infinity Nodes are groundbreaking evolved masternodes that solves the inflation problem. Traditional masternodes start with high ROI but with very large inflation and that inflation is what inevitably makes them fail.
What is IDS, why is it better than cloud storage? And size providers how to get/ earn SIN?
IDS = Incorruptible Data Storage.
IDS is a peer-to-peer private networking system, which will permit transactions and storage between miners and Infinity Node owners. Competitors including Sia, Storj, BitTorrent and even IPFS solutions reward individuals for serving and hosting content on their hard drive space, which requires a 24/7 uptime for computers. User hard drives must remain open and the rewards received must justify the costs incurred for leaving computer online.
In IDS, the private networking of decentralized storage relies solely on the SINOVATE Blockchain, with only node owners receiving rewards as compensation for utilising their hard drive resources to run an Infinity Node. Node owners will get rewards both from the Infinity Nodes and from storing confidential data.
IDS will have 5 steps of evolution.
SINOVATE has 533 tp/s. How are you planning to use this as a use case?
Scalability is one of the biggest problems in cryptocurrencies. POS only or centralized cryptocurrencies have higher scalability but are not suitable for the original Satoshi plan. Satoshi Nakamoto’s dream was everybody to mine their own coins without being centralized so SINOVATE blockchain not only is the most scalable POW cryptocurrency but will also have much more increased scalability in the future. Mass adoption requires high scalability especially when it will be used in real life as a payment means. Are we going to see SINOVATE Payment System in the future?
SINOVATE payment gateway will be released this year with high scalability and less than 3 seconds transaction times with the help of FlashSend.
What is SINOVATE aiming with X25X Algorithm?
SINOVATE formerly SUQA always aimed at the ordinary user starting with the X22i custom algorithm and upgraded to X25X to fight the big hardware companies so everyone can mine their own coin without letting ASIC,FPGA companies dominate the network.
Algo Comparison Chart
We are committed to remaining ASIC / FPGA resistant and such use an ever evolving algorithm, the latest variation named X25X launched with the last update. It is protected from difficulty attacks using Dark Gravity Wave v3 and raises the memory requirements compared to X22i bt a factor of five making it harder for ASIC / FPGA to implement.
What is Komodo dPOW , and when is the plan implementation on SINOVATE?
dPoW diagram
KOMODO DPoW is a working and trusted 51 % Attack protection technology to prevent any kind of malicious attacks by the help of notarized data of Bitcoin, KOMODO and SINOVATE chain.
What is the current status on mobile wallets? We saw a mobile wallet trailer.
Mobile wallets will be released in July 2019 as a custom good looking wallet tailored to the specific needs of SIN Blockchain
What is the plan for adoption in real life SINOVATE?
Our team draws from a large diversity of skills from many areas of business and across many different industries. This allows us to design and hone the experience of interacting with the SINOVATE Blockchain at many levels, from developers, business leaders and operational levels, down to the end-user experience.
This allows us to develop software and user experiences from the perspective of all involved, ensuring that the end user is the primary focus.
What is the current financial status on SINOVATE?
SINOVATE are transparent about the financial status of the foundation and the activity taken with funds. We regularly publish updates and the latest one for June is here.
What partnerships will there be in the future?
Besides the Masternodes related partnerships, SINOVATE partnered with KOMODO for the integration of dPoW 51% attack protection, which will be active at the end of July or early August 2019.
As the foundation’s mission is to grow the space for all. We are happy to work with all projects and businesses both by learning from the great work others have undertaken and offering something back to other projects with our open source code.
With Governance what can it do for the community?
Decentralized governance is the future of any successful blockchain project, SINOVATE believes that blockchain will be ubiquitous in the underlying infrastructure and services in the future of everyday life. Having fair voting for developments, marketing and innovations of the SINOVATE chain will be very important for everyone.
Hopefully that covers as an introduction, please fire away below with any questions you might have for us and feel free to join sinovate for the latest news!
Edit - Thanks for the great questions and discussion. First round answered by our CEO u/cryplander, feel free to shoot more :)
submitted by nick_badlands to gpumining [link] [comments]

WaykiChain CSO, Wayki Sun: Vaulting Ambitions Carried Boundless Energy

“Here we must run as fast as we can just to stay in place.”.
— — — Alice in Wonderland
Once, this was just a fairy tale, but now, in the blockchain industry, it has become the reality. The fairy tale came true in the blockchain industry.
Looking back on 2019, the world’s various uncertainty still while blockchain takes the real lead Having the whole world in view, the stablecoin project Libra has become a subject of the U.S. Congress, starting off the tremendous craze in blockchain worldwide, by storm; while Chinese government introduces a new policy that lists blockchain as an important breakthrough for its innovation focus.
It is in this historical turning point that Waykichain has successfully completed its own transformation.
Coping with the times, the reflection of the trend
At WaykiChain’ inception, WaykiChain entered the industry via the most appropriate entry point prediction, which its full enthusiasm has been frustrated by the policy of cognitive. Since then, Waykichain has retreated to ecosystem co-building. By providing one-stop help for the outstanding developers from all over the world, Waykichain has launched dozens of DApps in order to build its own public chain ecosystem.
There are full of obstacles and difficulties. Waykichain team has paid great attention and affection to the whole process. From technology, operation, promotion to marketing, all of which have caught up to the front of the industry in such experience and exploration.
As Wayki Sun, the “godfather” said, said: “The old conscious classicalists are always afraid of the arrival of new things, however, the efficient and advanced new system is so unstoppable.”
The changes in the industry have made some people like falling into ice caves but crying without tears, while others have ushered in more possibilities.
The key lies in whether the pulse of the development of the industry has been observed and the opportunities given by the times have been seized. In this way, even the detours will eventually become a rainbow to success.
All previous attempts and explorations let us deeply understand that innovation is not to take shortcuts, but to take root in the deepest reality, solve the problems of specific business scenarios, and match the rigid demand that lies deep inside of our users.
Taking the ecosystem as a breakthrough, Waykichain finally set its target in the financial direction.
Huatong Securities is the first case of Waykichain successfully landing in a business application scenario. As a successful precedent for cryptocurrency cross-border finance,
Huatong Securities has brought significant returns to investors in a series of new digital currency businesses. Data shows that some investors who participated in the subscription of new shares through Huatong Securities have achieved a return of over 30% in recent months. Through WUSD as the access channel, investors who have not been able to get involved in this field can also participate in it without obstacles.
Waykichain’s long-term: based on core values
Facing the rapid changes in the market, WaykiChain innovated from time to time, constantly iterating new ways of business paths. In the face of the uncertainty of the world, Waykichain has always adhered to its long-term, and through its internal cultivation, it used its own certainty to deal with the uncertainty of the world.
Such long-term is exactly the core value of Waykichain:
Firstly, WaykiChain will continue to maintain as a global leader in public chain technology and mechanisms.
The four-letter codes “Long”, “Teng”, “Tiger”, and “Yue” signify the roadmap of the future evolution of the Waykichain public chain. In the current “Teng” stage of the public chain, Waykichain not only achieved a global leader in a number of hardcore technical indicators such as TPS (average stable at 3300, peak 7800), transfer speed but also reached the industry in terms of the underlying logic and technical architecture. Leading positions, such as the construction of stablecoin systems and DEX at the bottom of the public chain, have surpassed the general contract-based construction in terms of security, stability, scalability, the convenience of paying fees, etc. The decentralized cross-chain technology completed at the end of the quarter will bring cross-chain assets such as Bitcoin and Ethereum to Waykichain, which will stimulate tens of billions of value liquidity; and the upcoming integration of the WASM virtual machine will also allow Waykichain acquires dual virtual machine engines for higher compatibility and performance.
“Publicchain is still in the era of clash of Titans. When all goes to all, technology will win out.” As Wayki's assertion of the public chain’s technical status, these explorations of public chain technology and mechanism have not only given WaykiChain the greater commercial application potential of public chain, also allows the public chain facilities built on it to have a stronger industry competitive advantage.
Secondly, vigorously expand the supporting construction of the commercial scene around Waykichain.
Regardless of whether it was cut through my prediction at the beginning, or then focused on the application ecosystem, or currently grasping the financial direction, although the rudder is constantly adjusting, the voyage of exploring the business model has never stopped.
At present, a complete set of decentralized financial system surrounding the stable coin WUSD of Waykichain has taken shape, and the profit model and commercial development path built on this financial system have become increasingly clear, including cross-border finance, cross-border payment, decentralization currency, denominated currencies, financial derivative transactions, etc. will all be important business application scenarios for Waykichain. On the last day of 2019, the WICC’s total network mortgage volume has exceeded 16 million, and the main destination of the WUSD loan is Huatong Securities’ cross-border financial investment.
Breaking Technology Silos: High Global Consensus
Owning, without connecting, will eventually become a technology island. What Waykichain does is to link realistic business scenarios and huge users outside the circle, and finally form a high degree of global consensus.
The so-called consensus is people’s identification of the same thing and a community of unanimous beliefs. The extent to which this matter can reach consensus also determines its commercial value. It can be said that consensus is the root of the development of public chain and the entire commercial building. The global high consensus is the development direction of all blockchain projects.
And such a high degree of consensus involves many aspects, including not only the global leader in the technology and mechanism of Waykichain mentioned above, the supporting construction of business scenarios, etc., but also other important parts:
Internationalization of the Waykichain Team. At present, Waykichain has gathered a group of elite troops with great dedication, a sense of mission and a sense of belonging. This is the result of Waykichain’s long-term implementation of the introduction, cultivation and elite precipitation of outstanding personnel. In the future, the Waykichain team will be further internationalized. Through the international team, a global communication circle will be built to help the global strategic layout;
Introducing strategic investments such as top global venture capital. No matter whether the previous contact with Softbank or being invited to attend the Global Blockchain High-end Private Conference in Dubai, we are preparing for the introduction of the world’s top venture capital and this will strengthen the brand endorsement and help Waykichain’s extension Breakthrough development.
Strengthen technical cooperation with governments and large institutions. Earlier, WaykiChain had conducted returning visits with the Montenegrin government and had an in-depth exchange of views on the blockchain technology reform in the field of Montenegro International Trade and Finance. Through such high-standard technical cooperation, it can not only improve the operating efficiency of related fields but also accumulate rich experience and capital market reference for more national-level cooperation of Waykichain;
Launch more world first- and second-tier exchanges. Last year, Waykichain successfully launched Gate.io and Bithumb and other international first-tier exchanges, and other first-tier and second-tier exchanges are also actively contacting.
Through the creation of a high degree of global consensus, Waykichain will ultimately be given more business value and promote the landing of a business application ecosystem.
The magic weapon to win the future: Massive community expansion
The magic weapon to win the future is not how much resources you have, but how many resources you can mobilize. For this reason, in addition to having a high degree of consensus on a global scale, we also need a huge community as a vehicle that can be scheduled.
At present, through the global partner and ambassador system of various countries, Waykichain has formed a number of international communities around the world with Waykichain ambassadors as its core. Among them, 41 community managers (including global ambassadors) from 15 countries including U.S, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan, Indonesia, Brazil, Vietnam, South Korea, Turkey, the Philippines, Russia, Spain, Ukraine, Bangladesh and Nigeria, including Nearly 30 international communities; and has held several offline events in Russia, Singapore, Turkey, Vietnam and South Korea.
On the basis of the achievements of single-point breakthroughs in some key countries and regions, we will continue to penetrate overseas markets and increase the frequency of offline meet-ups and overseas marketing activities. In the coming year, we plan to hold another 30 overseas offline meet-ups through official channels, and encourage and assist global volunteers to organize about 60 offline meet-ups on their own initiative.
Through the implementation of point-to-surface breakthroughs, we will continue to attract incremental users, and continue to expand the number of users in overseas communities while maintaining the steady growth of domestic communities, and truly form a situation of massive community expansion and a global chess market.
2020: Writing our own heroism
“Having a dream that doesn’t make you exhausted in this life, I think, is the best gift that life gives you.”
At that time, when the godfather wrote this sentence in the circle of friends, Waykichain was not born yet. But what happened in the next two years, we all know: once the seeds of dreams land, under the watering of ambition, not only take root, they are already germinating, they will grow wildly.
“To set a big goal, you must focus crazily and continue to work towards it.” This is not only the creed of Wayki but also his exhortation to the team. From top to bottom, with this “crazy energy” that constantly surpasses itself and pursues excellence, Waykichain is able to open its doors and build bridges on the road of technological evolution and in the cold winter of the industry.
On the high-speed track of the global public chains, WaykiChain built around the three dimensions of “core value as the foundation”, “global high consensus” and “mass community expansion”, the next goal will be to strive for the top five and even the top 3 positions of the global public chain. Let’s wait and see how this heroic epic belongs to us.
submitted by Waykichain to WICCProject [link] [comments]

WaykiChain CSO, Wayki Sun: Vaulting Ambitions Carried Boundless Energy

"Here we must run as fast as we can just to stay in place.".
----- Alice in Wonderland
Once, this was just a fairy tale, but now, in the blockchain industry, it has become the reality. The fairy tale came true in the blockchain industry.
Looking back on 2019, the world’s various uncertainty still while blockchain takes the real lead Having the whole world in view, the stablecoin project Libra has become a subject of the U.S. Congress, starting off the tremendous craze in blockchain worldwide, by storm; while Chinese government introduces a new policy that lists blockchain as an important breakthrough for its innovation focus.
It is in this historical turning point that Waykichain has successfully completed its own transformation.
Coping with the times, the reflection of the trend
At WaykiChain’ inception, WaykiChain entered the industry via the most appropriate entry point prediction, which its full enthusiasm has been frustrated by the policy of cognitive. Since then, Waykichain has retreated to ecosystem co-building. By providing one-stop help for the outstanding developers from all over the world, Waykichain has launched dozens of DApps in order to build its own public chain ecosystem.
There are full of obstacles and difficulties. Waykichain team has paid great attention and affection in the whole process. From technology, operation, promotion to marketing, all of which have caught up to the front of the industry in such experience and exploration.
As Wayki Sun, the “godfather” said, said: "The old conscious classicalists are always afraid of the arrival of new things, however, the efficient and advanced new system is so unstoppable."
The changes in the industry have made some people like falling into ice caves but crying without tears, while others have ushered in more possibilities.
The key lies in whether the pulse of the development of the industry has been observed and the opportunities given by the times have been seized. In this way, even the detours will eventually become a
rainbow to success.
All previous attempts and explorations let us deeply understand that innovation is not to take shortcuts, but to take root in the deepest reality, solve the problems of specific business scenarios, and match the rigid demand that lies deep inside of our users.
Taking the ecosystem as a breakthrough, Waykichain finally set its target in the financial direction.
Huatong Securities is the first case of Waykichain successfully landing in a business application scenario. As a successful precedent for cryptocurrency cross-border finance,
Huatong Securities has brought significant returns to investors in a series of new digital currency businesses. Data shows that some investors who participated in the subscription of new shares through Huatong Securities have achieved a return of over 30% in recent months. Through WUSD as the access channel, investors who have not been able to get involved in this field can also participate in it without obstacles.
Waykichain's long-term: based on core values
Facing the rapid changes in the market, WaykiChain innovated from time to time, constantly
iterating new ways of business paths. In the face of the uncertainty of the
world, Waykichain has always adhered to its long-term, and through its internal
cultivation, it used its own certainty to deal with the uncertainty of the world.
Such long-term is exactly the core value of Waykichain:
Firstly, WaykiChain will continue to maintain as a global leader in public chain technology and
mechanisms.
The four-letter codes "Long", "Teng", "Tiger", and "Yue" signify the roadmap of the future evolution of the Waykichain public chain. In the current "Teng" stage of the public chain, Waykichain not only achieved a global leader in a number of hardcore technical indicators such as TPS (average stable at 3300, peak 7800), transfer speed but also reached the industry in terms of the underlying logic and technical architecture. Leading positions, such as the construction of stablecoin systems and DEX at the bottom of the public chain, have surpassed the general contract-based construction in terms of security, stability, scalability, the convenience of paying fees, etc. The decentralized cross-chain technology completed at the end of the quarter will bring cross-chain assets such as Bitcoin and Ethereum to Waykichain, which will stimulate tens of billions of value liquidity; and the upcoming integration of the WASM virtual machine will also allow Waykichain acquires dual virtual machine engines for higher compatibility and performance.
"Publicchain is still in the era of clash of Titans. When all goes to all, technology will win out." As Waykis assertion of the public chain's technical status, these explorations of public chain technology and mechanism have not only given WaykiChain the greater commercial application potential of public chain,
also allows the public chain facilities built on it to have a stronger industry competitive
advantage.
Secondly, vigorously expand the supporting construction of the commercial scene around Waykichain.
Regardless of whether it was cut through my prediction at the beginning, or then focused on the
application ecosystem, or currently grasping the financial direction, although the rudder is
constantly adjusting, the voyage of exploring the business model has never stopped.
At present, a complete set of decentralized financial system surrounding the stable coin WUSD of Waykichain has taken shape, and the profit model and commercial development path built on this financial system have become increasingly clear, including cross-border finance, cross-border payment, decentralization currency, denominated currencies, financial derivative transactions, etc. will all be important business application scenarios for Waykichain. On the last day of 2019, the WICC's total network mortgage volume has exceeded 16 million, and the main destination of the WUSD loan is Huatong Securities' cross-border financial investment.
Breaking Technology Silos: High Global Consensus
Owning, without connecting, will eventually become a technology island. What Waykichain does is to link realistic business scenarios and huge users outside the circle, and finally form a high degree of global consensus.
The so-called consensus is people's identification of the same thing and a community of unanimous beliefs. The extent to which this matter can reach consensus also determines its commercial value. It can be said that consensus is the root of the development of public chain and the entire commercial building. The global high consensus is the development direction of all blockchain projects.
And such a high degree of consensus involves many aspects, including not only the global leader in the technology and mechanism of Waykichain mentioned above, the supporting construction of business scenarios, etc., but also other important parts:
Internationalization of the Waykichain Team. At present, Waykichain has gathered a group of elite troops with great dedication, a sense of mission and a sense of belonging. This is the result of Waykichain's long-term implementation of the introduction, cultivation and elite precipitation of outstanding personnel. In the future, the Waykichain team will be further internationalized. Through the international team, a global communication circle will be built to help the global strategic layout;
Introducing strategic investments such as top global venture capital. No matter whether the previous contact with Softbank or being invited to attend the Global Blockchain High-end Private Conference in Dubai, we are preparing for the introduction of the world's top venture capital and this will strengthen the brand endorsement and help Waykichain's extension Breakthrough development.
Strengthen technical cooperation with governments and large institutions. Earlier, WaykiChain had conducted returning visits with the Montenegrin government and had an in-depth exchange of views on the blockchain technology reform in the field of Montenegro International Trade and Finance. Through such high-standard technical cooperation, it can not only improve the operating efficiency of related fields but also accumulate rich experience and capital market reference for more national-level cooperation of Waykichain;
Launch more world first- and second-tier exchanges. Last year, Waykichain successfully launched Gate.io and Bithumb and other international first-tier exchanges, and other first-tier and second-tier exchanges are also actively contacting.
Through the creation of a high degree of global consensus, Waykichain will ultimately be given more business value and promote the landing of a business application ecosystem.
The magic weapon to win the future: Massive community expansion
The magic weapon to win the future is not how much resources you have, but how many resources you can mobilize. For this reason, in addition to having a high degree of consensus on a global scale, we also need a huge community as a vehicle that can be scheduled.
At present, through the global partner and ambassador system of various countries, Waykichain has formed a number of international communities around the world with Waykichain ambassadors as its core. Among them, 41 community managers (including global ambassadors) from 15 countries including U.S, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan, Indonesia, Brazil, Vietnam, South Korea, Turkey, the Philippines, Russia, Spain, Ukraine, Bangladesh and Nigeria, including Nearly 30 international communities; and has held several offline events in Russia, Singapore, Turkey, Vietnam and South Korea.
On the basis of the achievements of single-point breakthroughs in some key countries and regions, we will continue to penetrate overseas markets and increase the frequency of offline meet-ups and overseas marketing activities. In the coming year, we plan to hold another 30 overseas offline meet-ups through official channels, and encourage and assist global volunteers to organize about 60 offline meet-ups on their own initiative.
Through the implementation of point-to-surface breakthroughs, we will continue to attract incremental users, and continue to expand the number of users in overseas communities while maintaining the steady growth of domestic communities, and truly form a situation of massive community expansion and a global chess market.
2020: Writing our own heroism
"Having a dream that doesn't make you exhausted in this life, I think, is the best gift that life gives you."
At that time, when the godfather wrote this sentence in the circle of friends, Waykichain was not born yet. But what happened in the next two years, we all know: once the seeds of dreams land, under the watering of ambition, not only take root, they are already germinating, they will grow wildly.
"To set a big goal, you must focus crazily and continue to work towards it." This is not only the creed of Wayki but also his exhortation to the team. From top to bottom, with this "crazy energy" that constantly surpasses itself and pursues excellence, Waykichain is able to open its doors and build bridges on the road of technological evolution and in the cold winter of the industry.
On the high-speed track of the global public chains, WaykiChain built around the three dimensions of "core value as the foundation", "global high consensus" and "mass community expansion", the next goal will be to strive for the top five and even the top 3 positions of the global public chain. Let's wait and see how this heroic epic belongs to us.
submitted by Waykichain to u/Waykichain [link] [comments]

Mining for Profitability - Horizen (formerly ZenCash) Thanks Early GPU Miners

Mining for Profitability - Horizen (formerly ZenCash) Thanks Early GPU Miners
Thank you for inviting Horizen to the GPU mining AMA!
ZEN had a great run of GPU mining that lasted well over a year, and brought lots of value to the early Zclassic miners. It is mined using Equihash protocol, and there have been ASIC miners available for the algorithm since about June of 2018. GPU mining is not really profitable for Horizen at this point in time.
We’ve got a lot of miners in the Horizen community, and many GPU miners also buy ASIC miners. Happy to talk about algorithm changes, security, and any other aspect of mining in the questions below. There are also links to the Horizen website, blog post, etc. below.
So, if I’m not here to ask you to mine, hold, and love ZEN, what can I offer? Notes on some of the lessons I’ve learned about maximizing mining profitability. An update on Horizen - there is life after moving on from GPU mining. As well as answering your questions during the next 7 days.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Mining for Profitability - Horizen (formerly ZenCash) Thanks Early GPU Miners

Author: Rolf Versluis - co-founder of Horizen

In GPU mining, just like in many of the activities involved with Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, there is both a cycle and a progression. The Bitcoin price cycle is fairly steady, and by creating a personal handbook of actions to take during the cycle, GPU miners can maximize their profitability.
Maximizing profitability isn't the only aspect of GPU mining that is important, of course, but it is helpful to be able to invest in new hardware, and be able to have enough time to spend on building and maintaining the GPU miners. If it was a constant process that also involved losing money, then it wouldn't be as much fun.

Technology Progression

For a given mining algorithm, there is definitely a technology progression. We can look back on the technology that was used to mine Bitcoin and see how it first started off as Central Processing Unit (CPU) mining, then it moved to Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) mining, then Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and then Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC).
Throughout this evolution we have witnessed a variety of unsavory business practices that unfortunately still happen on occasion, like ASIC Miner manufacturers taking pre-orders 6 months in advance, GPU manufacturers creating commercial cards for large farms that are difficult for retail customers to secure and ASIC Miner manufacturers mining on gear for months before making it available for sale.
When a new crypto-currency is created, in many cases a new mining algorithm is created also. This is important, because if an existing algorithm was used, the coin would be open to a 51% attack from day one, and may not even be able to build a valid blockchain.
Because there's such a focus on profitable software, developers for GPU mining applications are usually able to write a mining application fairly rapidly, then iterate it to the limit of current GPU technology. If it looks like a promising new cryptocurrency, FPGA stream developers and ASIC Hardware Developers start working on their designs at the same time.
The people who create the hashing algorithms run by the miners are usually not very familiar with the design capabilities of Hardware manufacturers. Building application-specific semiconductors is an industry that's almost 60 years old now, and FPGA’s have been around for almost 35 years. This is an industry that has very experienced engineers using advanced design and modeling tools.
Promising cryptocurrencies are usually ones that are deploying new technology, or going after a big market, and who have at least a team of talented software developers. In the best case, the project has a full-stack business team involving development, project management, systems administration, marketing, sales, and leadership. This is the type of project that attracts early investment from the market, which will drive the price of the coin up significantly in the first year.
For any cryptocurrency that's a worthwhile investment of time, money, and electricity for the hashing, there will be a ASIC miners developed for it. Instead of fighting this technology progression, GPU miners may be better off recognizing it as inevitable, and taking advantage of the cryptocurrency cycle to maximize GPU mining profitability instead.

Cryptocurrency Price Cycle

For quality crypto projects, in addition to the one-way technology progression of CPU -> GPU -> FPGA -> ASIC, there is an upward price progression. More importantly, there is a cryptocurrency price cycle that oscillates around an overall upgrade price progression. Plotted against time, a cycle with an upward progressions looks like a sine wave with an ever increasing average value, which is what we see so far with the Bitcoin price.

Cryptocurrency price cycle and progression for miners
This means mining promising new cryptocurrencies with GPU miners, holding them as the price rises, and being ready to sell a significant portion in the first year. Just about every cryptocurrency is going to have a sharp price rise at some point, whether through institutional investor interest or by being the target of a pump-and-dump operation. It’s especially likely in the first year, while the supply is low and there is not much trading volume or liquidity on exchanges.
Miners need to operate in the world of government money, as well as cryptocurrency. The people who run mining businesses at some point have to start selling their mining proceeds to pay the bills, and to buy new equipment as the existing equipment becomes obsolete. Working to maximize profitability means more than just mining new cryptocurrencies, it also means learning when to sell and how to manage money.

Managing Cash for Miners

The worst thing that can happen to a business is to run out of cash. When that happens, the business usually shuts down and goes into bankruptcy. Sometimes an investor comes in and picks up the pieces, but at the point the former owners become employees.
There are two sides to managing cash - one is earning it, the other is spending it, and the cryptocurrency price cycle can tell the GPU miner when it is the best time to do certain things. A market top and bottom is easy to recognize in hindsight, and harder to see when in the middle of it. Even if a miner is able to recognize the tops and bottoms, it is difficult to act when there is so much hype and positivity at the top of the cycle, and so much gloom and doom at the bottom.
A decent rule of thumb for the last few cycles appears to be that at the top and bottom of the cycle BTC is 10x as expensive compared to USD as the last cycle. Newer crypto projects tend to have bigger price swings than Bitcoin, and during the rising of the pricing cycle there is the possibility that an altcoin will have a rise to 100x its starting price.
Taking profits from selling altcoins during the rise is important, but so is maintaining a reserve. In order to catch a 100x move, it may be worth the risk to put some of the altcoin on an exchange and set a very high limit order. For the larger cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin it is important to set trailing sell stops on the way up, and to not buy back in for at least a month if a sell stop gets triggered. Being able to read price charts, see support and resistance areas for price, and knowing how to set sell orders are an important part of mining profitability.

Actions to Take During the Cycle

As the cycle starts to rise from the bottom, this is a good time to buy mining hardware - it will be inexpensive. Also to mine and buy altcoins, which are usually the first to see a price rise, and will have larger price increases than Bitcoin.
On the rise of the cycle, this is a good time to see which altcoins are doing well from a project fundamentals standpoint, and which ones look like they are undergoing accumulation from investors.
Halfway through the rise of the cycle is the time to start selling altcoins for the larger project cryptos like Bitcoin. Miners will miss some of the profit at the top of the cycle, but will not run out of cash by doing this. This is also the time to stop buying mining hardware. Don’t worry, you’ll be able to pick up that same hardware used for a fraction of the price at the next bottom.
As the price nears the top of the cycle, sell enough Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to meet the following projected costs:
  • Mining electricity costs for the next 12 months
  • Planned investment into new miners for the next cycle
  • Additional funds needed for things like supporting a family or buying a Lambo
  • Taxes on all the capital gains from the sale of cryptocurrencies
It may be worth selling 70-90% of crypto holdings, maintaining a reserve in case there is second upward move caused by government bankruptcies. But selling a large part of the crypto is helpful to maintaining profitability and having enough cash reserves to make it through the bottom part of the next cycle.
As the cycle has peaked and starts to decline, this is a good time to start investing in mining facilities and other infrastructure, brush up on trading skills, count your winnings, and take some vacation.
At the bottom of the cycle, it is time to start buying both used and new mining equipment. The bottom can be hard to recognize.
If you can continue to mine all the way through bottom part of the cryptocurrency pricing cycle, paying with the funds sold near the top, you will have a profitable and enjoyable cryptocurrency mining business. Any cryptocurrency you are able to hold onto will benefit from the price progression in the next higher cycle phase.

An Update on Horizen - formerly ZenCash

The team at Horizen recognizes the important part that GPU miners played in the early success of Zclassic and ZenCash, and there is always a welcoming attitude to any of ZEN miners, past and present. About 1 year after ZenCash launched, ASIC miners became available for the Equihash algorithm. Looking at a chart of mining difficulty over time shows when it was time for GPU miners to move to mining other cryptocurrencies.

Horizen Historical Block Difficulty Graph
Looking at the hashrate chart, it is straightforward to see that ASIC miners were deployed starting June 2018. It appears that there was a jump in mining hashrate in October of 2017. This may have been larger GPU farms switching over to mine Horizen, FPGA’s on the network, or early version of Equihash ASIC miners that were kept private.
The team understands the importance of the cryptocurrency price cycle as it affects the funds from the Horizen treasury and the investments that can be made. 20% of each block mined is sent to the Horizen non-profit foundation for use to improve the project. Just like miners have to manage money, the team has to decide whether to spend funds when the price is high or convert it to another form in preparation for the bottom part of the cycle.
During the rise and upper part of the last price cycle Horizen was working hard to maximize the value of the project through many different ways, including spending on research and development, project management, marketing, business development with exchanges and merchants, and working to create adoption in all the countries of the world.
During the lower half of the cycle Horizen has reduced the team to the essentials, and worked to build a base of users, relationships with investors, exchanges, and merchants, and continue to develop the higher priority software projects. Lower priority software development, going to trade shows, and paying for business partnerships like exchanges and applications have all been completely stopped.
Miners are still a very important part of the Horizen ecosystem, earning 60% of the block reward. 20% goes to node operators, with 20% to the foundation. In the summer of 2018 the consensus algorithm was modified slightly to make it much more difficult for any group of miners to perform a 51% attack on Horizen. This has so far proven effective.
The team is strong, we provide monthly updates on a YouTube live stream on the first Wednesday of each month where all questions asked during the stream are addressed, and our marketing team works to develop awareness of Horizen worldwide. New wallet software was released recently, and it is the foundation application for people to use and manage their ZEN going forward.
Horizen is a Proof of Work cryptocurrency, and there is no plan to change that by the current development team. If there is a security or centralization concern, there may be change to the algorithm, but that appears unlikely at this time, as the hidden chain mining penalty looks like it is effective in stopping 51% attacks.
During 2019 and 2020 the Horizen team plans to release many new software updates:
  • Sidechains modification to main software
  • Sidechain Software Development Kit
  • Governance and Treasury application running on a sidechain
  • Node tracking and payments running on a sidechain
  • Conversion from blockchain to a Proof of Work BlockDAG using Equihash mining algorithm
After these updates are working well, the team will work to transition Horizen over to a governance model where major decisions and the allocation of treasury funds are done through a form of democratic voting. At this point all the software developed by Horizen is expected to be open source.
When the governance is transitioned, the project should be as decentralized as possible. The goal of decentralization is to enable resilience and preventing the capture of the project by regulators, government, criminal organizations, large corporations, or a small group of individuals.
Everyone involved with Horizen can be proud of what we have accomplished together so far. Miners who were there for the early mining and growth of the project played a large part in securing the network, evangelizing to new community members, and helping to create liquidity on new exchanges. Miners are still a very important part of the project and community. Together we can look forward to achieving many new goals in the future.

Here are some links to find out more about Horizen.
Horizen Website – https://horizen.global
Horizen Blog – https://blog.horizen.global
Horizen Reddit - https://www.reddit.com/Horizen/
Horizen Discord – https://discord.gg/SuaMBTb
Horizen Github – https://github.com/ZencashOfficial
Horizen Forum – https://forum.horizen.global/
Horizen Twitter – https://twitter.com/horizenglobal
Horizen Telegram – https://t.me/horizencommunity
Horizen on Bitcointalk – https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=2047435.0
Horizen YouTube Channel – https://www.youtube.com/c/Horizen/
Buy or Sell Horizen
Horizen on CoinMarketCap – https://coinmarketcap.com/currencies/zencash/

About the Author:

Rolf Versluis is Co-Founder and Executive Advisor of the privacy oriented cryptocurrency Horizen. He also operates multiple private cryptocurrency mining facilities with hundreds of operational systems, and has a blog and YouTube channel on crypto mining called Block Operations.
Rolf applies his engineering background as well as management and leadership experience from running a 60 person IT company in Atlanta and as a US Navy nuclear submarine officer operating out of Hawaii to help grow and improve the businesses in which he is involved.
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Thank you again for the Ask Me Anything - please do. I'll be checking the post and answering questions actively from 28 Feb to 6 Mar 2019 - Rolf
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What Is Bitcoin Mining Difficulty? - YouTube Mining Difficulty - Simply Explained - YouTube Bitcoin difficulty increase BITCOIN DIFFICULTY ALL-TIME HIGH ERREICHT - YouTube Evolution of Bitcoin's UTXO

This newsletter was originally published in HASHR8. I recently ran into an article by Yo-Der Song and Tomaso Aste named “The cost of Bitcoin mining has never really increased. In the article they compare the daily transaction volume with the spot price of Brent oil as the basis for worldwide electricity prices. They came up with a ratio of the “cost of mining” based on this oil price and ... Is Bitcoin Evolution a system that allows earning money with cryptocurrencies, or is it a scam?. First of all, it must be said that a lot of alleged automatic cryptocurrency trading software is being advertised, often with names similar to Bitcoin Evolution. They are all presented in a similar way, with a detail that already clearly reveals their nature: they promise significant gains in a ... Das angesprochene Konsensusverfahren nennt sich beim Bitcoin Proof-of-Work und verursacht hohe Stromkosten, da viele berechneten Blockhashes wegen ihrer falschen Difficulty schlichtweg verworfen ... The Bitcoin difficulty chart provides the current Bitcoin difficulty (BTC diff) target as well as a historical data graph visualizing Bitcoin mining difficulty chart values with BTC difficulty adjustments (both increases and decreases) defaulted to today with timeline options of 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 3 years, and all time The Bitcoin network difficulty is the measure of how difficult it is to find a new block compared to the easiest it can ever be. It is recalculated every 2016 blocks to a value such that the previous 2016 blocks would have been generated in exactly two weeks had everyone been mining at this difficulty. This will yield, on average, one block every ten minutes.

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What Is Bitcoin Mining Difficulty? - YouTube

After the Bitcoin (BTC) mining difficulty jumped sharply today, mining has become 20% more difficult than right before the third BTC halving in May. However,... Bitcoin basics: What is the difficulty target and how does it adjust itself? - Duration: 7:12. Keifer Kif 4,486 views. 7:12. What is Crypto Mining Difficulty and How it Impacts YOUR Profits ... Mining Bitcoin or Ethereum is a hard task for your computer. But why? And what does the difficulty have to do with the security of blockchains? Learn all abo... Every 14 days the difficulty is adjusted. Most of the times it is increasing and since November 2017 it has exploded. What impact does this have on your mini... A non-geeky explanation of what bitcoin mining difficulty is. This also shows how to keep your bitcoin take from diminishing over time.

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